Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles
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Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles. D.Sc . Tatiana Minav. Teaching practice. 5.01.2014. Tatiana Minav. Behind theory is practice!. Expectations? . wishes? ideas? suggestions? Recommendations?. Goals/Targets. Understand concept L osses

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Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

D.Sc. Tatiana Minav

Teaching practice

5.01.2014

Tatiana Minav


Behind theory is practice

Behind theory is practice!

Tatiana Minav


Expectations

Expectations?

wishes?

ideas?

suggestions?

Recommendations?

Tatiana Minav


Goals targets

Goals/Targets

  • Understandconcept

  • Losses

  • TIER

  • Trends

  • Vehicle classification

  • Ways to improve efficiency

  • Fuel consumption

  • Electric machines types

  • Frequency converters

Tatiana Minav


Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

Tatiana Minav


Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

Tatiana Minav


Trends

Trends

  • Moremobility - electromobility

  • Highdemand for hybrids

  • Demand for cleanenergy

  • TIER 4 -11 % and <TIER 3 -89 %

  • Fuelquality is low in most of the world

  • Increasemachineefficiency

  • Increaseprocessefficiency

  • Increaseoperatorefficiency

  • Increase life time of Non-road mobile machinery(NRMM)

  • Lowerfuelconsumption

  • Trend to go to highersystemcomplexity

  • System developing and software domination

Tatiana Minav


Common industry wishes

Common industrywishes

  • Avoidingpartialload

  • Increasingproductivity

  • Integration

  • Acceptablereturn of investment

  • Reducelosses

Tatiana Minav


Industry versus academic research

Industry versus Academic research

Tatiana Minav


Hex market

HEX market

Tatiana Minav


Situation of the ce market

Situation of the CE Market

Tatiana Minav


Main factors for energy efficiency

Main factors for energy efficiency

Tatiana Minav


What kind of losses in car discussion

Whatkind of losses in car?/ discussion

  • Engine losses

  • Heat losses

  • Mechanical losses(air firction, etc.)

  • Auxillary power consumption (air-conditioning, power steering,etc…)

    Do you know that ?

    Total efficiency of an engine is around 20-30 %.

    How to improve the efficiency?

  • reduce losses

  • optimize the shape

  • or change topology

Tatiana Minav


Engine efficiency

Engine efficiency

  • The engine is now in on/off- operation and is only in operation during 11% of the cycle.

  • The other 89%, the engine is switched off, thereby completely eliminating idle losses.

Tatiana Minav


Vehicle classification

Vehicleclassification

Tatiana Minav


Can we make some changes to convert conventional car to ev

Canwemakesomechanges to convertconventionalcar to EV?

?

Primemover

Engine

?

Energy storage

Bensin/Gasolin

Tatiana Minav


Game discussion in groups 2 3 pers make your own ev topology for conventional car

GAME-discussion in groups (2-3 pers.) makeyourown EV topology for conventionalcar

  • 5-10 minutes

Tatiana Minav


Motor drive system topologies

Motor Drive System Topologies

  • Central drive

  • Single wheel 2WD drive

  • Single Wheel 4WD drive

  • Final drive 4WD

  • Wheel (hub) drive 4WD

Wheel hub drive

Tatiana Minav


Advantages of a electric motor in hybrid driveline

Advantages of a electric motor in hybrid driveline

Engine + motor = allows:

  • Smaller engine => less pollution

  • Blue motion => reduce engine idling when stopped

  • The vehicle uses regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine to charge the energy storage

  • Electric motor used as a generator and storing the captured energy in the battery.

  • Extra power during acceleration

Tatiana Minav


Various electric machines

Various Electric Machines


Why electric machines em

Why Electric Machines (EM)?

  • Torque-speed characteristics of EM

    • High torque at low speeds

      • constant torque region

    • High maximum speed


Why electric machines em1

Why Electric Machines (EM)?

  • Efficiency of Electric Machines

    • Up to 95 %

  • Efficiency of Internal combustion engines

    • Gasoline up to 30 %

    • Diesel up to 40 %


Why electric machines em2

Why Electric Machines (EM)?

  • High efficiency in wide operation area

  • Torque-speed characteristics

  • Fast and accurate control

  • Motor and generator operation modes

    • Regenerative braking

  • Powertrainconfiguration

    • Amount of tractionmotors

  • Challenges

    • Cost -> Manufacturing

    • Size, cooling, etc ?

    • Electricity source ?


Em four quadrant operation

EM Four-Quadrant Operation


Regenerative braking

Regenerativebraking

  • Potentialfor ~30% energysavings


Potential and kinetic energy recovery in vehicles

Potential and kineticenergyrecovery in vehicles

Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS), technology that was introduced to the sport in 2009 and was a mainstay from 2011.

http://www.formula1.com/inside_f1/understanding_the_sport/8763.html

http://www.toyota-industries.com/csr/environment/product/eco5_9.html

Tatiana Minav


Group work select of ev topology depends on application

Group work! Select of EV Topologydepends on application:

group1: sport car ( example Ferrari)

group 2: familycar(example Volvo)

group 3: smallcar(example Fiat)

group 4: truck (kuorma-auto)

group 5: Bus

group 6: non-roadmobile machine – tractor

group 7: non-road mobile machine– mineloader


Group 1 sport car

Group 1: sportcar

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 2 family car

Group 2: familycar

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 3 small car

Group 3: smallcar

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 4 truck

Group 4: truck

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 5 bus

group 5: Bus

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 6 tractor

group 6:Tractor

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 7 m ineloader

group 7: Mineloader

  • what?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Electric machines em

Electric Machines (EM)

  • DC Machines

  • Induction Machines

  • Permanent Magnet Machines

  • Switched Reluctance Machines


Dc machine

DC Machine

  • Widely used and simple electric motor

  • Technologically mature and simple to control

Operation principle:

F = BIL

T = BIL cos α


Animation dc motor

Animation-DC motor

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gzca2CbZ6EM

  • All motors:

    http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au//jw/electricmotors.html

Tatiana Minav


Properties of dc machine

Properties of DC Machine

  • Traditionallyused in tractionapplications

    • Trains, trams, electriccars

  • Onlyfullycontrollable EM beforepowerelectronics ~70’s

  • Phased out (in big powerlevels) due to wear of commutator

    • Commutator and slipringbrushesconnectsmagnetizationcircuit to rotorcoils

      • Increasesneed of maintenance

  • Lowefficiencycompared to otherelectricmachines


Induction machine im

Induction Machine (IM)

  • The most common

  • In tractionapplicationsusually”squirrel-cage”

  • Magnetization current is fed by an inverter

  • Slip (asynchronous machine)

  • Simple and robust


Animation

Animation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtJoJBUSe28


Characteristics of induction machine

Characteristics of Induction Machine

Benefits

  • Reliable and robust

  • Low maintenance, low cost and capability to operate in extreme conditions

  • The most mature technology of AC machines

    Drawbacks

  • Highloss=> relativelylowefficiency

  • Lowpowerfactor

  • Lowinverterusingfactor (overdimensionedinverter)

  • Losses in rotor (coolingproblem in mobile applications)


Operation modes of induction machine

Operation modes of Induction machine


Permanent magnet machines pm

Permanentmagnetmachines (PM)

  • Permanentmagnetrotor

    • Axialfluxrotor ------ >

    • Radialfluxrotor


Animation1

Animation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H97HpwZNqZI

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZAY5JInyHXY

Tatiana Minav


Permanent magnet rotor configuration affects to t w characteristics

Permanent-MagnetRotorConfigurationAffects to T-wCharacteristics

  • PRMPermanent-MagnetAssistedReluctanceSynchronousMachine

  • RMVariableReluctance Machine

  • SPMSurfacePermanent-MagnetSynchronous Machine

  • IPMInteriorPermanent-MagnetSynchronous Machine

  • MR-PMMagnetic-ringPermanent-Magnet Machine

M. Arata, N. Takahashi, K. Sakai, K. Hagiwara, T. Araki, Large Torque and High Efficiency Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor for A Hybrid Truck, EVS-22 Yokohama Japan, 2006


Characteristics of permanent magnet machines

Characteristics of PermanentMagnet Machines

  • Advantages:

    • Higherefficiencythan in asynchronousmachine

    • Smallerapparentpower rating for inverter

    • Smaller and lighter design

  • Disadvantages

    • Moreexpensivethanasynchronousorswitchedreluctancemachines

    • Magneticmaterial & manufacturingtechnique

  • Torque is producedby

    • Permanentmagnets

    • Reluctance


Switched reluctance machine srm

Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM)

  • Wide speed operation area

    wmax = 6 to 8 times wnom

  • Different power stage topology as in other electric

  • Simple and robust

  • Iron core and air resistance losses in the rotor machines

R. Krishnan, Switched reluctance motor Drives; Modeling, Simulation, Analysis, Design, and Applications, CRC Press, London, 2001


Animation2

Animation

  • http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/overview.jsp?code=WBT_MOTORSRTUT_WP

  • A switched reluctance motor does not contain any permanent magnets.

  • The stator is similar to a brushless dc motor.

  • The rotor consists only of iron laminates.

  • The iron rotor is attracted to the energized stator pole. The polarity of the stator pole does not matter.

  • Torque is produced as a result of the attraction between the electromagnet and the iron rotor.

Tatiana Minav


Characteristics of the switched reluctance machine

Characteristics of the Switched Reluctance Machine

  • Benefits

    • Simple and ruggedstructure

    • Fault-tolerantoperation

    • Simplecontrol

    • Verygoodtorque-speedcharacteristics

  • Drawbacks

    • Acousticnoise

    • Torque and currentripple

    • Specialconvertertopology

    • Electromagneticinterference


Switched reluctance machine with integrated flywheel and clutch

Switched Reluctance Machine with Integrated Flywheel and Clutch


Best attributes of electric machines

Best attributes of electricmachines

  • Robust and simple:

    • Inductionmachine

    • Switchedreluctancemachine (SRM)

  • Lowcost

    • Inductionmachine

    • (SRM in the future)

  • Efficient

    • Permanentmagnetmachines


Comparison of electric machines

Comparison of electric machines

  • Great torque-speedcharacteristics

    • Switchedreluctancemachine

  • Weight, Size Power density

    • Permanentmagnetmachines

  • Controllability-> applicable to vehicleapplications

    • DC-machine

    • Inductionmachine

    • PM machine


Weaknesses in usefulness point of view

Weaknesses in usefulness point of view

  • Short speed-operationrange of permanentmagnetmachines

    • Need of gearboxifused in highspeedvehicles

  • Limited availability of switchedreluctancemachines

  • Price:

    • smallmarket -> smallproduction -> highcost


Typical efficiency characteristics of hev traction motors

Typical Efficiency Characteristics of HEV Traction Motors

Accurateefficiencyvaluesdependfrompower, voltageratings and machinetype

  • Maximum efficiencyusuallyaround 90 to 95 %

Asynchronous machine

Switched reluctance machine

Surface-permanentmagnetmachine

Interior-permanentmagnetmachine

S.S.Williamson, S.M.Lukic, A.Emadi, Comprehensive Drive Train Efficiency Analysis of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles Based on Motor-Controller Efficiency Modeling, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 730-740, May 2006


Group work select of electric machine depends on application

Group work! Select of Electric Machine depends on application:

group1: sport car ( example Ferrari)

group 2: familycar(example Volvo)

group 3: smallcar(example Fiat)

group 4: truck (kuorma-auto)

group 5: Bus

group 6: non-roadmobile machine – tractor

group 7: non-road mobile machine– mineloader


Discussion what we should consider

Discussion: Whatweshouldconsider?

  • Neededtorque–speedcharacteristics

    • Torque at lowspeeds (constanttorqueregion)

    • Maximum speed

    • Maximum speedrelation to nominalspeed (wmax/wnom)

      • Constanttorqueregion

      • Fieldweakeningregion

      • Highvalue to achievegearlessoperation

    • Magnetizationmethod

    • Reluctancetorque

  • Control of powerelectronics

  • Location: Powertrainconfiguration

    • Amount of tractionmotors

  • Cost, size, cooling, etc.


Group 1 sport car1

Group 1: sportcar

  • What Motor type?

  • Cooling?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 2 family car1

Group 2: familycar

  • What Motor

    type?

    Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 3 small car1

Group 3: smallcar

  • What Motor type?

  • Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 4 truck1

Group 4: truck

  • What Motor

    type?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 5 bus1

group 5: Bus

  • What Motor type?

  • Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 6 tractor1

group 6:Tractor

  • What Motor type?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Group 7 m ineloader1

group 7: Mineloader

  • What Motor

    type?

    Cooling needed?

  • why?

  • problems?

  • limitations?

  • price?

Tatiana Minav


Near wheel motor lut

Near-wheelmotor (LUT)

The designed PMSM rotor structure comprises two permanent magnet layers embedded inside the rotor laminations. The PMSM can produce nominal torque with the nominal current in a wide speed range. the nominal torque is 240 Nm.

Tatiana Minav

Source: ICEM 2012 J.Nerg, Design of Direct-Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for an Electric Sports Car


In wheel motor hub motor

In-wheelmotor/ hubmotor

Like so many things, in-wheel motors have already been done, but technology and our ability to integrate them into wheels has changed a lot since the first in-wheel motor (also called a hub motor) was patented back in 1884 and, after disappearing for decades, they are starting to creep back into vehicle.

Tatiana Minav


In wheel motor

In-wheelmotor

  • High-efficiency

  • Direct drive

  • Regenerativebraking

  • Integration

  • No transmission ordriveshafts

    Example: Proteanelectronics:

    -built-ininverter and controlelectronics

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tLQ2-yKT4Y

Tatiana Minav


Basics of power electronics and electric motors for hybrid and electric vehicles

Source: http://www.proteanelectric.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/2012_HTUF_-_Hybrid-Retrofit_Opportunities1.pdf

Tatiana Minav


How to control electric machine

How to control electric machine?

Tatiana Minav


Motor control

MOTOR CONTROL

  • Torquecontrol in widespeedrange

  • Speedcontrol

  • Position control

  • POWER ELECTRONICS is required for motorcontrol


What is power electronics pe

What is Power Electronics (PE) ?

  • Efficientuse of electricdrives and energystorages

  • Controllablecurrent-voltageratio

  • Electric hassmall inertia vs. hydrauliccomponents

  • Power electronicsystemsconvertsupply’s electricenergy into a formsuitable for the load

  • DC to variable AC

    • E.g. frombattery to electricmachine, and

  • AC to DC

    • E.g. regenerativebraking

    • E.g. fromgenerator to energystorageor DC link

  • DC to DC

    • E.g. frombattery to highvoltage DC link


Classification of power processors and converters

Classification of Power Processors and Converters


Power electronics pe

Power Electronics (PE)

  • Enabling technology for electric and hybrid vehicles

  • High efficiency in wide operation area

  • Control of electric machines

  • Motor and generator operation modes

    • Regenerative braking

  • Challenges

    • Cost -> Manufacturing

    • Cooling -> size, lifetime

      • Semiconductorsmaxtemperature 120 – 175 degC

        • Need for additionalcoolingcircuit


Challenges in power electronics

Challenges in Power Electronics

  • Highefficiency (lowlosses)

    • powerlossesconvert into heat, whichyields to excessivecooling and thermalsizing of components

    • price of electricenergy and coolingsystem

  • Small size of products

    • highefficiency is crucial

      • coolingelementsarebulky and heavy

    • packagingdensity, integration of power and controlcomponents

  • Competitiveprice

3rd gen.

2nd gen.


What are little converters made of

What are little converters made of…

IGBT


What are little converters made of1

What are little converters made of…


What are little converters made of2

What are little converters made of…


Example ac motor drive

Example: AC Motor Drive

  • Converter 1 rectifiesline-frequency AC into DC

    Capacitoracts as a filter and decouples the twoconvertercircuits

  • Converter 2 producesvariable-frequency AC for the motor

    Polarity of DC voltagelinkremainsunchanged


Related topics

RelatedTopics

  • Electric Drives

    • control of drives, choice of motor and converter

  • Industrial Electronics

    • electronics, signalprocessing, measurementtechniques, soft computing

  • Electromechanics

  • Control engineering

  • Electromagnetics

  • Power Systems


Dc dc converters

DC–DC Converters

  • DC–DCconvertersareused in

    • Betweendifferent DC voltagelevels (e.g. energystorage and regulatedDC-link)

    • Power supplies

    • DC motordrives

  • The aim is to providepreciselycontrolledoutput voltageorcurrent


Dc dc converters1

DC–DC Converters

  • Single quadrant

    • oneactiveswitch, onediode, inductance and smoothingcapacitance

    • Buck, stepdown, vout ≤ vin

    • Boost, stepup, vout ≥ vin

    • Buck-boost, combination

  • Twoquadrant

    • E.g. bidirectionalboostconverter

  • Fourquadrant


Dc dc converter applications in vehicle environment

DC–DC Converter Applications in Vehicle Environment

  • Batterycharger / energystorageconverter

  • Fuelcellconverter

  • Heaters

  • Power supplies for

    • controlelectronics

    • auxiliarydevices


Ac dc rectifiers and dc ac inverters are used in

AC-DC RECTIFIERS AND DC-AC INVERTERS are used in

  • Traction motor control

  • Generator control (engine series-hybrids)

  • Other AC-supplies

    • Pumps

    • Fans


1 phase inverter

1-phase inverter

http://www.ipes.ethz.ch/ipes/e_index.html


Four quadrant converter dc drive

Four-QuadrantConverter (DC drive)

  • http://www.ipes.ethz.ch/ipes/MaschineDC/e_kreis.html

Tatiana Minav


Transmission gear box

Transmission/Gear box

  • Gearbox is used to slow down the output speed and increase torque.

  • In conventional car internal combustion engine typically operate over a range of 600 to 7000 rpm, while the car's wheels rotate between 0 rpm and around 1800 rpm.

  • Direct transmissions:

    • Manual,

    • Semi-Automatic

    • Automatic.

  • Non-direct transmissions:

    • electric,

    • Hydrostatic

    • hydrodynamic.

T.A.Minav


Transmission gear box1

Transmission/Gear box

  • Electric equivalent

  • Dynamic machine operation envelops electric torque versus mechanical speed

  • a) Parallel connection of phases,

  • b) series connection of phases

T.A.Minav


Electrciacl transmission gear box

ElectrciaclTransmission/Gearbox

  • The presented principle is applied to a non-salient permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), with six phases of which three sets of each two phases are driven with the same current, resulting in a balanced three-phase machine structure

T.A.Minav


F ull bridge

Full-bridge

  • Schematic representation of the two coils per phase, full-bridge per coil circuit capable of driving the coils individually or connected in series.

T.A.Minav


Conclusion

Conclusion

Now you Know what's EM is and what control it :)

Tatiana Minav


New group division

New Group division!

  • Count from 1 to 6.

Tatiana Minav


Homework 1

Homework 1

Group 1: Batteries: Lead acid

Group 2: Batteries: Lithium

Group 3: Super capacitor

Group 4: Fuel cell

Group 5: Flywheel

Group 6: Hydraulic accumulator

read articles according to your group number and answer questions:

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of energy storage?

  • Price of energy storage? Availability on the market?

  • Possible applications? limitations?

Tatiana Minav


Homework 2

Homework 2

  • Exersises 2 available on Noppa return before 21.1

Tatiana Minav


Feedback

Feedback

Tatiana Minav

[email protected]

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