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World War II. World History Chapter 30. Setting the stage. All countries were being affected by the depression U.S., France, and U.K. already had control of territory with natural resources Japan, Italy, and Germany wanted the same:

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world war ii

World War II

World History

Chapter 30

setting the stage
Setting the stage
  • All countries were being affected by the depression
  • U.S., France, and U.K. already had control of territory with natural resources
  • Japan, Italy, and Germany wanted the same:
    • Germans wanted “lebensraum” or living space from countries in the east
    • Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini (and his thugs called “Brown Shirts”) wanted to control the Mediterranean Sea to build a new Roman empire
    • Japan wanted to control China
  • Many supported these dictators because of the “Red Scare” or the fear of the spread of communism
  • Rumors of Joseph Stalin (the leader of Russia) had put to death nearly 45 million Soviet citizens by secret police scared people, too
japan
Japan
  • Japan wanted the territory called Manchuria to be used as a buffer between them and communist Korea
  • Because of a Chinese civil war, Japan easily conquered the territory and called it Manchukuo
  • Japan’s invasion was condemned:
    • First, by U.S. isolationists
    • Passed the Stimson Doctrine which denied recognition of any territory taken by force
    • League of Nations: passed a resolution calling for Japan to withdrawal
  • Instead, Japan withdrew from the League and the world did nothing…Germany and Italy watched with glee
hitler
Hitler
  • Adolph Hitler – born in 1889 in Austrian border town near Germany
  • Full of bigotry and convinced that Jews were corrupting the world
  • After WWI, he joined a small group that was against capitalism and communism and was hostile towards Jews
  • By 1930, this small party became much larger and known as the Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazis)
  • Gave inspiring speeches about uniting the Aryan race and regaining Germany’s lost territory in WWI
hitler part two
Hitler Part Two
  • Hitler planned on committing genocide (or killing a whole national or ethnic group) against Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals
  • Spread anti-Semitism (Jewish hatred) and blamed the Jews for Germany’s woes
  • Hitler consolidated all power in the country (called it the Third Reich) and when President Hindenburg died, Hitler declared himself füehrer (means “leader”)
  • Hitler committed atrocities – brutal crimes of war
  • Hitler used veterans as bodyguards and thugs to arrest political prisoners
germany and the olympics
Germany and the Olympics
  • In 1936, Germany hosted the summer Olympics
  • Hitler thought it would be a good way to show German resurgence in the world
  • Hitler wanted to show “superiority” of the Aryan race
  • Jesse Owens, an African-American, spoiled it, however when he won 4 gold medals
  • Hitler shook hands with the runner-up only: a German named Luz Long
and it begins
And it begins…
  • Kristallnacht:
    • In 1938, Jews in Germany received a night of terror called the Kristallnacht
    • Means “Night of broken glass”
    • Nazi gangs broke into Jewish homes, beat up the occupants, burned synagogues, and looted Jewish businesses
  • Rhineland:
    • Used as a buffer between Germany and France and according to the treaty of WWI, no one was to occupy it
    • Hitler retakes the Rhineland
    • Then, he takes Austria
a reaction
A reaction
  • The U.S., the U.K. and France begin appeasement – or pacifying Hitler to avoid conflict
  • Ultimatum – being given two options to a problem
  • Meanwhile, Mussolini invades Ethiopia to gain his Med. Sea empire
  • Hitler then demands the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia because it used to belong to Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Hitler then wanted Danzig (a port city) to be ceded to Germany
  • Hitler signs a non-aggression pact with Russia (so as to not have to fight a two front war) and then attacks Poland
germany aggression
Germany aggression
  • German air force (called Luftwaffe) eliminated Poland’s air force
  • Germany then seized Denmark and Norway
  • Germany used planes, tanks, bombing, and firepower (called “blitzkrieg”) – means lightning attack or war
  • Germany took over France
  • Germany bombed Britain daily
  • Germany broke the non-aggression pact with Russia and easily defeated the Soviets
  • Soviets withdrew, winter set in and Germany put a halt to the pursuits
japan1
Japan
  • Meanwhile, Japan continued its invasion of China
  • U.S. was the first to respond with more than words: they limited the amount of oil Japan could import from the U.S.
  • Japan and Germany sign an alliance with Italy (creating the Axis powers)
  • Japan took Indonesia – The U.S. responded by freezing all Japanese assets
  • Japan attacks a naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 in Hawaii in response
  • U.S. joins the war
u s in the war
U.S. in the war
  • U.S. joins the Allied forces but is constantly beat down by the Japanese
  • General Douglas MacArthur – commander of the American forces in the Pacific
  • 78,000 U.S. troops surrendered to the Japanese
  • The prisoners were forced to march 65 miles
  • Called the “Bataan Death March” – If you stopped, you were shot
  • Meanwhile, in Europe, the U.S. invaded Normandy (France) called D-Day
  • 3 million Allied troops staged this massive assault (See VIDEO)
the war goes on
The War goes on…
  • Battle of the Bulge: called this because of the German advances with their tanks but they were bombarded with Allied aircraft and the winter
  • Soviets pushed from the other side
  • Roosevelt (US), Churchill (UK), Stalin (USSR) all met at the Yalta Conference and they got Stalin to agree to help with war with Japan
  • Stalin agrees to fight Japan 3 months after Germany’s defeat
  • In return, Stalin would get control of all of eastern Europe
slide30

Battle of the Bulge - New Year\'s Day Snow & frost-covered

Browning .30 caliber LMG,in position near Sourbrodt, Belgium

Jan 1, 1944

atrocities
Atrocities
  • Holocaust: the name of mass murder on the Jews
  • Germany kept on fighting, despite losing so many because of Hitler’s propaganda
  • Many attempts were made to kill Hitler
  • Nazi death squads killed high ranking officials (German)
  • Hitler’s Final Solution: was an outright open edict to kill all Jews
  • Began exterminating all Jews in concentration camps:
    • 6 million Jews died
    • 5 million more died (including Poles, Czechs, Russians, homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped)
  • Hitler writes his book “Mein Kampf”
  • Hitler and his girl (Eva Braun) killed themselves on April 30, 1945 by swallowing cyanide and a gun shot to the head (body is never recovered)
  • May 8, 1945, Germany surrenders
now on to japan
Now on to Japan…
  • The war refocuses back on the Pacific
  • Japan gets beat down at the Battle of Midway
  • Meanwhile, a scientist from Germany defects to the U.S. named Albert Einstein
  • They begin working on the Manhattan Project (building an atom bomb)
  • Japan would not surrender and the U.S. was losing many lives island hopping
  • Harry S. Truman warned Japan to surrender or face the atom bomb
  • Japan ignored the warning…
the final bomb
The Final Bomb
  • August 6, 1945 an American B-29 dropped an atom bomb on the city of Hiroshima killing 60, 000 immediately and another 140,000 from fall out
  • Truman again asked for another surrender but Japan refused
  • August 9, 1945 another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki
  • Stalin joined the fight and forced Japan out of China
  • Japan surrenders and the war is declared over
  • WWII got the world and the US out of the depression ($9.6 billion in spending to $95 billion)
  • In all, somewhere between 50 to 70 million people lost their lives during WWII – See VIDEO
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