yarns and sewing threads

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2. Tonight’s topics Fibers spun into yarns Wide variety of yarns Yarn types affect fabric properties Unique size systems exist for yarns Different equipment is required to weave or knit with different yarns Fabric finish choices affected by yarn type Garment designs influenced by yarn types Sewing threads similar to yarns

4. Spun Yarn Filament Yarn

5. SPUN YARNS Staple fibers twisted together Twisting creates stronger yarns Identify by untwisting yarn fibers; spun yarn pulls apart into individual short fibers Swatches 1, 12, 20, 31, 48, 54, 72, 85Swatches 1, 12, 20, 31, 48, 54, 72, 85

6. FILAMENT YARNS Continuous filaments as they come from spinnerette/cocoon Little or low twist Smooth lustrous surface Tightly twisted filament yarns Crepe-filament yarns Strength of yarn depends on individual fiber strength and number of filaments Swatches 4, 8, 13, 39, 55, 69, 94, 96Swatches 4, 8, 13, 39, 55, 69, 94, 96

7. Monofilament Composed of one filament Multifilament Composed of many filaments Most filament yarns are multifilament More flexible than single filament yarns of same diameter

8. TAPE & NETWORK YARNS Tape Yarns Inexpensive Produced in sheet form; then slit into .1” strips Common for olefins and metallics Network Yarns Air included in solution to make foam; air pockets pop when fiber is drawn, creating a network of interlocked fibers Industrial uses where bulk and low density are more important than high strength

9. Carded And Combed Yarns(1 smoothing step) (2 or more smoothing steps) Fabrics of combed yarn look better, feel smoother, are stronger, and are more expensive than fabrics of carded yarn Fabrics of combed yarn retain shape better and pill less Fabrics of carded yarn are bulkier, softer, and fuzzier. Combed: swatch 20 Carded: swatch 11, 27, 33, 50, 76, 80 Combed: swatch 20 Carded: swatch 11, 27, 33, 50, 76, 80

10. Linen Yarns Tow = short fibers = coarse texture = rough finish; homespuns Line = long fibers = smooth texture = fine finish; handkerchief linen Tow - swatch 7 Tow - swatch 7

11. Wool Yarns Woolen Made of carded yarns Noils (snarls) Fuzzy Uneven diameter Bulky Wide range of fiber lengths Sizing called run and written like this: 2/50 Worsted Made from combed yarns Smooth with little fuzz Even diameter Tightly twisted May shine Firm Size called worsted and written like this: 2/50 Swatch 2 Swatch 2

12. Woolen Yarn Worsted Yarn

13. Spinning Methods Ring (Conventional) Method Opening Loosens the bale, blends and cleans fibers, forms lap Carding Cleans and aligns fibers, forms carded sliver Drawing Makes parallel and blends fibers, forms drawn sliver May create fiber blends now

14. Combing Makes parallel and removes short fibers (noils), forms combed (top) sliver (used only for long-staple cotton or worsted) Roving Reduces size, inserts slight twist, forms roving Spinning Reduces size, twists, winds the finished yarn on bobbins Winding Rewinds yarns from bobbins to spools or cones

15. Other Spinning Methods Open-end Rotor Spun Method (O-E) eliminates some aligning steps 4x faster production than ring method coarser yarns with poorer uniformity and poorer strength commonly used for denim fabric Air-jet Spun Method coarser, weaker, and less elastic better cover (bulk) Vortex Spun Method 2x faster than OE 20-30 x faster than ring spinning Not as uniform as ring spun

16. BLEND = two or more fibers mixed in one yarn intimate blends combines good and bad properties of fibers spun blends most popular; filament blends available COMBINATION = ply yarns; each ply is 1 generic type of yarn Metallics; fasciated yarns MIXTURE = yarns of different generic types used within a fabric (warp is 1 type, weft is another) Blends - Swatches 28, 30, 50, 74, 77, 79, 87 Mixtures - Swatches 14, 19, 21, 29, 37, 40 89, 91, 100 Blends - Swatches 28, 30, 50, 74, 77, 79, 87 Mixtures - Swatches 14, 19, 21, 29, 37, 40 89, 91, 100

17. YARN TWIST Turns per inch = tpi Soft twist Soft, fluffy yarns; napping twist; 2 - 12 tpi Average twist most durable staple yarns; not used with filaments Hard twist high or voile twist; smooth, firm and kinky yarns; 20 - 30 tpi Crepe twist highest twist; lively yarns; require special treatment; 40-80 tpi Filament yarns - very low twist (1/2 - 1 tpi) Swatches: 11 (high), 31 (medium), 2 (low)Swatches: 11 (high), 31 (medium), 2 (low)

18. Effects of Twist on Yarn and Fabric Fineness Contraction Bending behavior Absorbency Covering power Permeability Softness or hardness Tensile strength Extension and recovery Resistance to creases and abrasion Pilling behavior Luster

19. Up to the left S twist Left – Right Twist Up to the right Z twist

21. Why is Yarn Plied? Introduce different fiber yarns Combine spun and filament yarns Improve strength of a singles Make thicker, smoother strand Make more stable yarn and fabric Add texture or novelty yarn but maintain strength Add color interest

22. Ply Yarns …. Are more expensive Require better quality fiber, more labor, special machinery Most fabrics are made of singles

23. Yarn Size Systems Relationship between weight of yarns and certain length of yarn Yarn sizes Yarn-count systems (spun yarns) cotton, lea, run, worsted Denier system (filament yarns) d = denier dpf = denier per filament Tex system (mostly for thread) Tex and d-tex

24. Yarn Count System Larger the size number, finer the yarn Sheer lawn = 70s to 100s Calico = 30s to 40s Written as 50/2 (yarn count + number of plies) Denier System Higher the denier, larger the yarn 1 d yarn: 9000 meters of yarn weighs 1 gram 2 d yarn: 9000 meters of yarn weighs 2 grams Sheer hosiery = 20 d Luggage = 100 d Tex System

25. Spun yarns = yarn count system Spun yarns may be plied Size is expressed as 50/2 count (or if woolen or worsted as 2/50) (2 yarns are twisted together & each yarn size is 50/1 count) An equivalent sized singles yarn would be size 25 count (50 divided by 2)

26. Filament yarns = denier system Filament yarns are seldom plied but when they are, the size is expressed as two-ply 80 denier a singles yarn of comparable size would be 160 d. (80 x 2) 300-10-1/2 Z means a 300 denier multifilament yarn with 10 filaments (each 30 d.) with a half turn per inch and a Z-twist. This is NOT a plied yarn.

27. SPECIAL YARN TYPES Microdenier Stretch Novelty Chenille Metallic

28. MICRODENIER YARNS Developed in late 1980s Finer filaments than silk (less than 1 denier) Extremely soft and drapable Expensive

29. STRETCH YARNS POWER STRETCH Holding power is required Highly elastic yarns High recovery force COMFORT STRETCH Designed to yield with body movement Low recovery force Fabrics look the same as nonstretch

30. Types of Stretch Yarns Bare Elastic Covered Elastic Core-spun Textured yarns Grin-through Unrecovered stretch

31. Covered elastic Core spun

32. Texturized yarns are widely used as comfort stretch yarns. False-twist method Stuffer box method Knife-edge method Air-jet method Gear crimping Knit-deknit method Thermoplastic fibers made texturizing possible. Slack mercerized yarns Yarns with texture vs. texturized yarns

33. NOVELTY YARNS Fancies Yarns not uniform in thickness - seed - spiral or corkscrew - nub - slub - thick and thin - boucle

34. CHENILLE YARNS Pile twisted between 2 core yarns Low abrasion resistance Prone to pilling and balding

35. METALLIC YARNS Flat, ribbon-like Tape yarns Metallics and olefins Supported by wrapping with filament yarns combination yarns Fasciated yarns Usually for decorative purposes

36. SEWING THREADS Main fibers: cotton, nylon, polyester, rayon Main yarn types: Spun Filament Core spun Always plied Highly twisted Often treated with special finishes or lubricants

37. THREAD FINISHES Mercerization Soft Glace Bonded Flame resistant and heat resistant for high speed sewing Lubricated

38. THREAD SELECTION FACTORS Type of materials to be stitched together Type of seaming used Product performance expected Method of cleaning

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