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Vertebrata. Class Amphibia. Amphibian Characteristics. Ectothermic tetrapods Respiration by lungs, gills, or skin Skin moist containing mucous glands, and lacking scales Development includes larval stage prior to metamorphosis Includes the frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians.

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Class Amphibia

Amphibian characteristics

Amphibian Characteristics

  • Ectothermic tetrapods

  • Respiration by lungs, gills, or skin

  • Skin moist containing mucous glands, and lacking scales

  • Development includes larval stage prior to metamorphosis

    • Includes the frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians

Frog skeleton and muscles

Frog Skeleton and Muscles

Lab 1

Amphibian skeleton

Amphibian Skeleton

  • Axial skeleton

    • Skull

    • Vertebral Column

  • Appendicular Skeleton

    • Pectoral Girdle and Forelimbs

    • Pelvic Girdle and Hindlimbs

Skull bones and structures to know








Occipital condyle

Orbital fossa

Nasal fossa

Skull Bones and Structures to Know





Vertebrae structures

Vertebrae Structures

  • Transverse Process

  • Neural Spine

  • Articular Process

  • Body

  • Vertebral Foramen



Appendicular skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral girdle bones

Pectoral Girdle Bones

  • Suprascapula

  • Scapula

  • Clavicle

  • Coracoid

Pelvic girdle bones

Pelvic Girdle Bones

  • Illium

  • Ischium

  • Pubis

Forelimb bones

Forelimb Bones

  • Humerus

  • Radioulna

  • Carpals

  • Metacarpals

  • Phalanges

  • Prepolux

Hindlimb bones

Hindlimb Bones

  • Femur

  • Tibiofibula

  • Tarsals

  • Metatarsals

  • Phalanges

  • Prehallux

Sternum bones

Sternum Bones

  • Episternum

  • Omosternum

  • Epicoracoid

  • Mesosternum

  • Xiphisternum

Skeletal muscular system

Skeletal Muscular System

  • Trunk Muscles

  • Thigh Muscles

  • Shank Muscles

Ventral muscles of frog

Ventral Muscles of Frog

Dorsal muscles of the frog

Dorsal Muscles of the Frog

Ventral trunk muscles

Ventral Trunk Muscles

  • Pectoralis

  • Rectus abdominus

  • External oblique

  • Transversus (= internal oblique)

Dorsal trunk muscles

Dorsal Trunk Muscles

  • Longissimus dorsi

  • Coccygeoiliacus

Muscles of head shoulder upper arm

Muscles of Head, Shoulder, Upper Arm

  • Depressor mandibularis

  • Dorsalis scapulae

  • Latissimus dorsi

  • Triceps brachii

  • Deltoid

  • Sternoradialis

Ventral muscles of thigh

Ventral Muscles of Thigh

  • Sartorius

  • Adductor magnus

  • Gracilis major

  • Graciilis minor

  • Adductor longus

Dorsal muslces of thigh

Dorsal Muslces of Thigh

  • Triceps femoris

  • Semimembranosus

  • Gluteus

  • Piriformis

Muscles of shank

Muscles of Shank

  • Gastrocnemius

  • Peroneus

  • Tibialis anticus longus

  • Extensor cruris

  • Tibialis anticus brevis

  • Tibialis posticus

Anatomy of the frog

Anatomy of the Frog

Lab 2

Mouth parts

Mouth Parts

Internal anatomy

Internal Anatomy

Urogenital system of frog

Urogenital System of Frog

Circulatory system of frog

Circulatory System of Frog


External jugular



Anterior vena cava

Sinus venosus

Posterior vena cava

Hepatic vein

Hepatic portal

Gastric vein

Intestinal veins

Splenic vein

Ventral abdominal vein

Urinogenital vein

Renal portal vein

Femoral vein

Pelvic vein



Conus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus

Carotid arch

Systemic arch

Pulmocutaneous arch

Dorsal aorta

Celiacomesenteric artery

Celiac artery

Anterior mesenteric artery

Hepatic artery

Splenic artery

Intestinal artery

Uninogenital arteries

Common iliac arteries


Heart of the frog

Heart of the Frog

Parts of the frog heart

Parts of the Frog Heart

  • Right atrium

  • Left atrium

  • ventricle

Mammalian heart sheep heart

Mammalian Heart(sheep heart)

Parts of the sheep heart

Right atrium

Left atrium

Right ventricle

Left ventricle

Tricuspid valve

Semilunar valve

Bicuspid valve



Pulmonary artery

Pulmonary vein

Parts of the Sheep Heart

Nervous system of the frog

Nervous System of the Frog

Brain of the frog

Brain of the Frog

Parts of the frog brain

Olfactory nerve

Olfactory lobe


Optic nerve

Optic lobe


Medula oblongata

Spinal cord

Parts of the Frog Brain

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