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Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer The Internet and Web Internet Technology Internet Communications Web technology Web Applications Key Terms Internet Backbone Internet Service Provider (ISP) Routers Dial-up Connection Cable modem connection DSL connection

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The Internet and Web

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The internet and web l.jpg

Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer

The Internet and Web

Internet Technology

Internet Communications

Web technology

Web Applications


4 1 internet technology l.jpg

Key Terms

  • Internet Backbone

  • Internet Service Provider (ISP)

  • Routers

  • Dial-up Connection

  • Cable modem connection

  • DSL connection

  • DSS connection

  • Protocols

  • TCP/IP

  • IP Address

  • Client/server

  • Port

  • Peer-to-peer (P2P)

4.1 Internet Technology

What is the Internet?


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What is the Internet?

Visualization of the Internet’s topology from http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/topology.html


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A Brief History of the Internet

http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/


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Internet Growth

The Web arrives

www.internetworldstats.com


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Verizon’s/MCI’s UUNet carries 28% of Internet traffic

Internet Hardware

  • The Internet backbone consists of the main pathways and connections of the Internet owned primarily by telecom companies.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_backbone


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Internet Hardware

  • Network Service Providers

    • Major telecom companies that provide the Internet backbone.

http://navigators.com/isp.html


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Internet Hardware

  • Points of Presence (POPs)

    • Facilities provided by Network Service Providers that allow users to connect to the Internet backbone.

  • Internet Service Providers

    • Companies that provide users with access to the Internet.

    • Dial-up vs. DSS vs. Cell vs. DSL vs. Cable

Top 22 ISP’s: http://www.isp-planet.com/research/rankings/usa.html


Internet hardware9 l.jpg

7’

The Cisco CRS-1 router is controlled by a unique self-healing and self-defending operating system designed for always-on operation while scaling system capacity up to 92 Tbps. Routers such as this one manage traffic on the Internet Backbone.

Internet Hardware

  • Routers: computing devices that manage network traffic by evaluating data packets and routing them to their destination.

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/router1.htm


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Packet Switching

  • A packet switching network divides all network data into small packets for faster, more efficient delivery.

An email message

Dear Joan,

Hi! How’s it goin’? Just finished midterms, and it looks like I might graduate this semester after all! :-) My computer teacher is really great and I guess that I learned more than I thought in those wonderful lectures that I had previously written you about….


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Packet Switching

Divided into packets

Dear Joan,

Hi! How’s it goin’? Just finished midterms, and it

looks like I might graduate this semester after all! :-) My computer teacher is really great and I guess that I

learned more than I thought in those wonderful lectures that I had previously written you about….


Packet switching12 l.jpg

Dear Joan,

Hi! How’s it goin’? Just finished midterms, and it

Message 3761HZA Date May 1 Packet 1 of 3From sweetykb@aol.comTo joan_kelly@yale.edu

looks like I might graduate this semester after all! :-) My computer teacher is really great and I guess that I

Message 3761HZA Date May 1 Packet 2 of 3From sweetykb@aol.comTo joan_kelly@yale.edu

learned more than I thought in those wonderful lectures that I had previously written you about….

Message 3761HZA Date May 1 Packet 3 of 3From sweetykb@aol.comTo joan_kelly@yale.edu

Packet Switching

Packet headers added


Packet switching13 l.jpg

Dear Joan,

Hi! How’s it goin’? Just finished midterms, and it

Message 3761HZA Date May 1 Packet 1 of 3From sweetykb@aol.comTo joan_kelly@yale.edu

looks like I might graduate this semester after all! :-) My computer teacher is really great and I guess that I

Message 3761HZA Date May 1 Packet 2 of 3From sweetykb@aol.comTo joan_kelly@yale.edu

learned more than I thought in those wonderful lectures that I had previously written you about….

Message 3761HZA Date May 1 Packet 3 of 3From sweetykb@aol.comTo joan_kelly@yale.edu

Packet Switching

Each packet sent individually over the network


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Router

Router

Router

Router

Router

Router

Router

Router

Router

Packet Switched Network

Router

Router

Router

Router

email

Router

Router

email



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Packet Switching

  • Packet switching is much more efficient than circuit switching.

Technology:Networking/TelecomsWednesday 28 May 2003 Sprint moves to packet-switch networkSprint is to change its entire circuit-switched telephone network to packet technology in an attempt to keep up with customer demand for capacity.

Sprint's eight million lines will be moved over to the packet-based asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) system, allowing voice, video and data to be broken down into small digital blocks and sent, in effect, simultaneously.This allows the network to be used more efficiently, and will also allow new multimedia services, Sprint said.

Sprint is the first major telecoms company to move all of its local, tandem and long-distance networks over to packet technology, according to Nortel Networks spokeswoman Ann Fuller.


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Internet Protocols

  • Protocols are rules that govern how data is transmitted and received.

  • They govern all Network and Internet communications:

    • The Internet

    • The Web

    • Email

    • Instant Messaging

    • Etc.

Ports are numeric addresses assigned to specific network services, and used in packet headers to direct data packets to the appropriate service. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers


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Internet Protocols

  • TCP/IP

    • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Divides data into packets for transmission, and reassembles data from packets upon delivery.

    • Internet Protocol (IP): Controls the delivery of packets between IP addresses.

  • IP Address

    • a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet.

    • 10000000.11111111.10110101.00010111

    • 128.255.181.29

    • www.fsu.edu


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Client/Server

Peer-to-Peer

Network Architectures

Original Napster vs. Kazaa


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Key Terms

  • Hyperlink

  • HTTP

  • Web browser

  • Web server

  • URL

  • HTML

  • XML

  • XHTML

  • Web authoring software

  • Cookies

  • Plug-in

  • Content Streaming

4.2 Web Technology

What is the Web?


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The Web

  • The World Wide Web is an Internet-based service that provides convenient access to information through hyperlinks.


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Domain name

Web Protocols & Standards

  • HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol defines and controls communication between Web server and client (Web browser).

  • URL: Uniform Resource Locator is the fancy name for a Web address.

http://www.cengage.com/coursetechnology/swt3/topics.html

http://www.icann.org/


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Web Protocols & Standards

  • HTML: Hypertext Markup Language is the formatting language used to define the appearance of Web pages.

    • Try View Source in IE

  • XML: New and popular standard for describing and classifying data in Web pages and other Web services.


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Web Protocols & Standards

  • Many of today’s popular applications store files in XML format for easy data sharing.


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Inventory.xml

Catalog.xhtml

Design.css

Web Server

Web Client


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Macromedia’s Dreamweaver software allows you to design Webpages and Websites using a WYSIWYG interface.

Web-Authoring Software

  • Web Authoring Software allows you to create HTML documents using word-processor-like software


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Programming the Web

  • Cookies are data generated by a Web server, and stored on your computer.

  • Used to target marketing or customize a webpage when you next visit the server.

  • Demowww.amazon.com

    • IE/Tools/Options/Settings/


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Web Browser Plug-Ins

  • A plug-in is a program that works with the browser to offer extended services –typically the ability to view animations or video, listen to music, or interact with the Webpage.

    • Popular plug-ins include Flash and Quicktime.

Demos:http://harrypotter.warnerbros.com


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Web Browser Plug-Ins

  • Content streaming allows media files to play while they are being delivered by the Web server.

www.movies.com


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Key Terms

  • Search engine

  • Synchronouscommunication

  • Asynchronous communication

  • E-mail

  • E-mail attachment

  • Instant messaging (IM)

  • Chat

  • SMS Text messaging

  • Blogs

  • Web 2.0

  • Wiki

  • Social Bookmarking

  • Video Conferencing

  • Telecommuting

4.3 Internet and Web Applications

How are they used?


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Communications

E-commerce

The Web

InformationDistribution

The Internet

The Internet & Web


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Web Tools

  • Search Engines: Helps us find information on the Web through keyword searches of databases built by spiders or crawlers (http://a9.com/).

  • Subject Directories: A catalog of sites collected and organized by people.

  • Portals: Web pages that serve as entry points to the Web.


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Communication and Collaboration

  • Face to Face

  • Video + Voice

  • Voice Only

  • Text Only

Effectiveness


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Communication and Collaboration

  • Synchronous Communication takes place in real time.

    • Phone conversation

    • Instant Messaging

  • Asynchronous Communication allows participants to leave messages to be accessed whenever.

    • Voice mail

    • Email

    • SMS Texting


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  • Face-to-face

  • Video conferencing

  • Phone (voice)

  • Instant messaging/Chat

  • Voice mail

  • Email

  • SMS Texting

Synchronous

Effectiveness

Asynchronous

Convenience

Communication and Collaboration


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Researchers at Caltech’s VRVS lab are able to video Conference from 36,000 feet above the Pacific Ocean.


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Communication and Collaboration

  • Text based Communication

    • Email

      • Attachments

    • Instant messaging (IM)

    • Chat


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2nd Life with avatars in a 3D virtual environment


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1

2abc

3def

4ghi

5jkl

6mno

7pqrs

8tuv

9wxyz

Decipher this!

35 or 243 possible words

0

Communication and Collaboration

  • SMS Text Messaging

  • Predictive Text Input

H E L L O

4ghi

3def

5jkl

5jkl

6mno

http://www.transl8it.com


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Communication and Collaboration

RSS (Really Simple Syndication) A web-content distribution technology

  • Blogs (Web logs) are websites created to express one or more individual’s views on a given topic (ie. http://www.bloglines.com/topblogs)

    • A blog aggregator is software that allows you to subscribe to numerous blogs (ie. http://www.bradsoft.com/feeddemon/)

  • APodcastisan audio file that contains a recorded broadcast distributed over the Internet for use on PC or Mobile media device.

    • Podcast Aggregator: provides access to podcasts that may be set to automatically download to your PC (iTunes).


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Web 2.0

  • The collaborative, social Web

  • The Web as a computing platform

  • Social Networking - Web sites that provide tools allowing members to share information about themselves with other members and find others with similar interests.

  • Wiki - A Web site designed to allow users to add, remove, and edit, content.

  • Social Bookmarking - Provide a way for members to store, classify, share, and search Web bookmarks.

  • Media Sharing - Web sites that allow members to share video, music, and photos, with others.


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Web 2.0 The Social

  • Facebook (social net), www.facebook.com

  • MySpace (social net), www.myspace.com

  • LinkedIn (pro social net), www.linkedin.com

  • Digg (news, bookmarking), www.digg.com

  • Delicious (bookmarking), www.delicious.com

  • Wikipedia (crowdsourced encyclopedia), www.wikipedia.com

  • Epinions (consumer reviews), www.epinions.com

  • Flickr (photo sharing), www.flickr.com

  • SmugMug (photo sharing), www.smugmug.com

  • YouTube (video sharing), www.youtube.com

  • Second Life (3D social net), www.secondlife.com

  • Plaxo (aggregator), www.plaxo.com


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Web 2.0 Blog Micro-blog

* WordPress, www.wordpress.com

* Blogger, www.blogger.com

* Twitter, www.twitter.com

* Jaiku, www.jaiku.com

* Pownce, www.pownce.com

* Plurk, www.plurk.com

* Spoink, www.spoink.com

* Swurl, www.swurl.com


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Web 2.0 Rich Internet Apps (RIA)

  • Google Docs (productivity apps), http://docs.google.com

  • 37signals (personal info mng), www.37signals.com

  • Zoho (variety), www.zoho.com

  • FlyPaper (presentations), www.flypaper.com

  • SlideRocket (presentations), www.sliderocket.com

  • icloud (web-based OS), www.icloud.com

  • eyeos (web-based OS), www.eyeos.com

  • Buzzword (word process), www.buzzword.com

  • todoist (to-do list), www.todoist.com

  • Photoshop Express (photo editing), www.photoshop.com/express


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www.current.tv

Communication and Collaboration

  • Vlog (Vodcast)

    • Video-based blogs (www.vlogdir.com/)

  • Consumer Generated Media is the recent trend of the general public capturing and reporting the news.

How does consumer genereated media compare to main stream media?


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Voice over IP (VoIP)

  • Technology that enables network managers to route phone calls over the same network they use for data.

Future of Phones: http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/video_audio_archive/?all

Also see Video Telephony


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Residential VoIP

  • Residential VoIP, Broadband Phone

    • Phone service over a broadband Internet connection.

  • http://www.voipchoices.com/vonage.html


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Video Conferencing

  • Video conferencing is a technology that combines video and voice communications along with document sharing.

Telecommunications is the process of working from locations away from the office by using telecommunications technologies.


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News and Information

  • On-line news services allow you to drill-down into the story to get background information and details.

Webcasting uses the Web to deliver news video footage.


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  • NETg Offers…

  • 1,850 IT and desktop e-Learning courses

  • 1,300 business and professional development e-Learning courses

  • 2,000 up to date, searchable, IT, Desktop and Business Books from Safari

  • 250 instructor and student manuals for ILT training

Education and Training

  • Life-long learning is your future…


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E-commerce

  • E-commerce has opened up new opportunities in buying and selling.


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Travel

  • The Web has transformed the travel industry.


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Employment and Careers

  • The Web assists us in researching career possibilities:

    • Selecting a career

    • Researching companies

    • Networking with colleagues

    • Searching want ads

    • Creating Resumes & Professional Websites


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Multimedia & Entertainment

  • Music

  • Movies

  • Games


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Information

Consumers are increasingly reliant upon online resources to ease and inform major life events.

  • Research on the Web

    • Subject Directories, and Search Engines

    • Issues of reliability

    • Library Web sites

    • Research Databases


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4.4 The Future Internet


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The Future Internet

  • Internet2 is a research and development consortium led by over 200 U.S. universitoes and supported by partnerships with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies for tomorrow’s Internet.

  • The National LambdaRail (NLR), or Internet3 is a cross country, high-speed fiber-optic network dedicated to researching high-speed networking applications.


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High-Speed Internet Applications

  • Interactive Collaboration

Long distance collaboration and education.

www.accessgrid.com/

Two dancers in different locations dance together.


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High-Speed Internet Applications

  • Real-time access to remote Resources

Scientists can control the astronomical telescopes at Gemini observatories in Hawaii and Chile from any location on Internet2.


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High-Speed Internet Applications

  • Large-scale Multisite Computation and Data Mining

  • Shared Virtual Reality

Consider the future of

www.secondlife.com



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