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The French Revolution. Four Stages. Moderate Stage (1789-92) Radical and Bloody Stage (1793-94) Reactionary Stage (1794-99) Napoleonic Era (1799-1815). Three Estates. Voting Procedures- Each Estate gets one Vote- Nobles and Church “nobles” typically ally with one another

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four stages
Four Stages
  • Moderate Stage (1789-92)
  • Radical and Bloody Stage (1793-94)
  • Reactionary Stage (1794-99)
  • Napoleonic Era (1799-1815)
three estates
Three Estates
  • Voting Procedures- Each Estate gets one Vote-
    • Nobles and Church “nobles” typically ally with one another
  • Kings were not fond of the Estates General it was last called in 1614 (during Louis XIII reign) since they last were called to meet (remember how the English Kings stopped Parliament from meeting!!!)
three estates4
Three Estates
  • First Estate– “Noble” Clergy
    • 0.1% of population
    • 10% of land
    • No taxes – Gave 2% of their income to the government
    • Collected Tithe
second estate
Second Estate
  • Second Estate– Nobility
    • 1.9% of population
    • Owned 20% of land
    • No taxes
    • Highest offices in army,

government, and courts

of law

    • “Born” into wealth
third estate
Third Estate
  • Made up of 3 groups – First Class
    • Bourgeoisie
      • Strongly influenced by Enlightenment
      • Wealthy, self-made men with no say in gov’t.
third estate7
Third Estate
  • Third Estate– Second Class
    • Sans Culottes
      • Middle Class with no say in gov’t.
    • Corvee- applied to both second and third groups (work as tax)
third estate8
Third Estate
  • Third Estate – Third Class
    • Peasant Farmers
      • Made up 80% of population
      • Extremely poor
      • Paid 50% of taxes
corvee

Corvee-

Every year, the law required peasants to work without pay on a government road

louis xvi was a weak ruler
Louis XVI was a weak ruler
  • Marie Antoinette, his wife, was unpopular b/c she was from an Austrian family
  • Louis was in debt because of the American Revolution
  • The nobles refused to pay taxes
  • Louis called a meeting of the estates in Versailles
louis xvi is in debt
Louis XVI is in Debt
  • Reign started in 1774
  • Known as a weak and indecisive King
  • Spent money lavishly
  • France owed huge debts---Louie had to figure a way out of the debt, he wanted to tax the nobles----they had money and weren’t already severely taxed…but that didn’t work- Nobles demanded a meeting of the Estates General
estates general to national assembly
Estates General to National Assembly
  • Estates General meets in 1789 for first time since 1614
  • Third Estate demands equality in voting process
the national assembly took power
The National Assembly took Power
  • The first and second estates expected to dominate the 3rd estate in 1789 as usual
  • Estates usually met separately and each had one vote
  • The 3rd estate demanded all estates meet together and have one vote
  • The king refused
  • The 3rd estate created the National Assembly
3 rd estate rebels leave the estates general to create their own government
3rd Estate- Rebels- leave the Estates General to create their own Government
  • Tennis Court Oath
    • Upset with their poor treatment in the Estates General the 3rd Estate led by Abbe Sieyes created a new government- the National Assembly
  • No more absolute King and no more Estates General----(maybe the Nobles should’ve just agreed to pay the tax!!!)
  • First act of Revolution
louis drops the ball storming of the bastille
Louis drops the ball– “Storming of the Bastille”
  • Bread prices now cost more than a day’s wages
  • The king tried to meet the demands of the 3rd Estate
  • He ordered Swiss guards to move toward Paris (he no longer trusted French military)
  • An angry mob turned on the Bastille Mobs storm the Bastille on July 14, 1789.
  • First violent Act of Revolution
the great fear swept france
The Great Fear Swept France
  • Rebellion spread all over France
  • Peasants banded together and demanded an end to high taxes and bread prices
  • They ransacked Versailles
  • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were forced to leave Versailles for good
the assembly adopted many reforms
The Assembly adopted many reforms
  • The assembly eliminated the privileges of the nobles
  • Passed the Rights of Man: “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”
  • A limited monarchy: the king was the executive, the national assembly was the legislative
  • A state run church: church lands given to govt. and church officials were to be elected by property owners – (peasants hate this)
declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen
DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND OF THE CITIZEN

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

  • Assembly passes A FRENCH BILL OF RIGHTS
  • Right to
    • EQUAL JUSTICE
    • FREEDOM OF SPEECH
    • FREEDOM OF RELIGION
  • Today the universal

Declaration of Human

Rights traces its’ existence

to the French Revolution

louis xvi tries to escape
Louis XVI tries to Escape
  • The king approved the constitution
  • He tries to escape to the Austrian Netherlands
  • He was recognized before reaching the border
  • He and his family are returned to Paris under guard
  • This influenced the radicals in the assembly and sealed Louis’ doom
legislative assembly
Legislative Assembly
  • Replaced National Assembly in 1791
  • Political Spectrum emerges
    • Right (Loyal to the King)
    • Left (Radicals) wanted change, a Republic!
    • Center (conservatives, agree with both sides)
left v right

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

LEFT v. RIGHT
  • Members of the Legislative Assembly had different views
    • Radicals- Complete change- out with the old in with the new
    • Moderate- Some changes- but don’t change everything
  • In the Legislative Assembly
    • Radicals sat to the Left
    • Loyalists sat to the Right
  • Today- Radicals are known as Leftists and Conservatives are known as on the Right
radical and bloody stage 1793 94
Radical and Bloody Stage (1793-94)
  • Execution of Louis XVI
  • Robespierre
  • Reign of Terror
read all about latest news 20 april 1792 prussia and austria at war with france
READ ALL ABOUT - LATEST NEWS - 20 April 1792PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA AT WAR WITH FRANCE!!!
  • Not happy about his sister’s situation, Marie Antoinette’s brother, Francis I of Austria threatens War with France
  • French Leftists see War as an opportunity to unite the country and spread the REVOLUTION
  • France declares War on Austria,
  • Prussia thereafter allies with Austria
  • French Conscription (the draft) begins- France will amass an Army of 800,000

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

louie and marie meet their demise
“LOUIE AND MARIE MEET THEIR DEMISE”
  • Earlier (1791) Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were discovered trying to flee France, under guard he was brought back
  • After Prussia and Austria go to war with France, a Mob attacked the Kings’ Paris Palace
  • Legislative Assembly (Government) officially got rid of Louis, later the National Convention ended the office of King

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

louis xvi is beheaded
Louis XVI is beheaded
  • 1792, the mobs in the streets are ruling the country
  • Radical Group called the Jacobins emerges and leads the call for a Republic
  • The Monarchy is abolished
  • Louis XVI is tried for treason

and found guilty

  • Louis XVI is beheaded

by guillotine

the guillotine
The Guillotine
  • Thousands die by the guillotine
    • King and Queen
    • Priests resisting govt. control
    • Rivals of the Jacobins
france created a citizen army
France created a citizen army
  • The radicals eliminated the constitutional monarchy
  • Britain, Spain, Portugal, Austria, and Prussia formed a coalition
  • France drafted army of 800,000 men to meet this challenge in 1794
  • The French army was made up of citizens not mercenaries
robespierre
Robespierre
  • Known as “the incorruptible”
  • Wanted to wipe all traces of the monarchy
  • Replaced the kings, queens, and jacks in decks of cards with liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  • He formed the Committee of Public Safety
committee of public safety robespierre marat and danton

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

Committee of Public Safety-Robespierre, Marat and Danton

Committee of Public Safety

-Created to watch over (spy) on people to MAKE SURE EVERYONE IS ACTING “PROPERLY”

Why so terrifying?

-MANY OF THOSE KILLED PREVIOUSLY SUPPORTED THE REVOLUTION

MONARCHS, NOBLES, CHURCH GOERS AND EVEN THE BOURGEOISIE ARE APPALLED AT THE REIGN OF TERROR

MARAT STABBED TO DEATH, DANTON ACCUSED BY THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY IS EXECUTED…

reign of terror

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite

Reign of Terror

A REPUBLIC OF VIRTUE

RADICALS DEMAND COMPLETE CHANGE-

-NOBLES FRIGHTENED FOR THEIR LIVES ESCAPE FRANCE

-PRIESTS AND CLERGY ARE KILLED-

-MARIE ANTOINETTE KILLED

-CHURCHES CHANGED TO MUSEUMS

-A NEW CALENDAR!!!

the terror
The Terror
  • The Committee of Public Safety judged not just monarchists, but anyone not as radical as Robespierre
  • Anywhere from 3,000 to 40,000 people were killed
  • 80% were from the Third Estate, whom the revolution had been started for
reactionary stage 1794 99
Reactionary Stage (1794-99)
  • Robespierre is beheaded
  • The Directory is formed with right-wing beliefs, two legislative houses, and an executive branch of five members
  • A period of calm
  • A great General rules the French Army
moderates ruled in the directory 1795
Moderates Ruled in the Directory1795
  • People were sick of the terror
  • The National Convention drafted another Constitution, the third since 1789
  • The Directory was 5 moderate men who ran France, they were corrupt, but people did not mind as much b/c the terror was over.
question to ponder
Question to Ponder:

What is the relationship between the political philosophes of the Enlightenment to the French Revolution?

1795 1799 obscurity to mastery
1795-1799OBSCURITY TO MASTERY
  • 1796: Bonaparte appointed to lead the French army against Austria and Sardinia in Italy
    • swift victories; control of Italy and Switzerland
  • November 10, 1799
    • Coup d’etat
    • Constitution of the Year
    • Napoleon named 1st Consul
napoleon becomes emperor
Napoleon becomes Emperor
  • At first Napoleon pretended to be the leader of a free republic
  • He then held a plebiscite.
  • The people voted to make Napoleon consul for life (1802)
  • In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor
policies
Policies
  • Economic Order
    • Slowed inflation/ People could afford bread
    • Set up a National Bank
  • Social Order
    • People promoted on merit not on blood-line
  • Religious Order
    • Napoleon signs Concordat (settlement) with Pope
    • Catholics favored in France, but not total dominance
  • Legal Order– Napoleonic Code
napoleonic code
NAPOLEONIC CODE
  • Gave France a single set of laws
  • Abolished the 3 estates of the old regime
  • Equality under the law
  • Limited liberty
    • censorship
    • women lost right to own property
    • slavery restored in French colonies
    • None of the laws applied to Napoleon!
napoleon battles to dominate europe
Napoleon Battles to Dominate Europe
  • 3rd Coalition: Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia
  • Led numerous battles from 1805-1807 that almost led to French domination of Europe
  • Napoleon’s Empire included all of Western Europe and beyond
  • Despite great success on land, the loss of the naval battle of Trafalgar to British proves fateful
napoleon s siblings
NAPOLEON’S SIBLINGS
  • Joseph…King of Naples and Spain
          • Louis , King of Holland
  • Lucien, Prince of Canino
napoleon s empire collapses

Napoleon’s Empire Collapses

Continental System

Peninsular War

Russian Invasion

continental system
Continental System
  • Blockade of British shipping and goods
  • Attempt to strengthen the continental countries of Europe
  • Britain responded with their own blockade
  • Continental System weakened the economies of continental Europe
  • Policy hurt Napoleon more than his enemies
peninsular war spanish guerillas
Peninsular War– Spanish Guerillas
  • Napoleon attempted to make his brother King of Spain
  • Nationalism was on the rise throughout Europe due to Napoleon’s conquest of the continent
  • Spanish guerillas killed almost 300,000 French soldiers
russian invasion
Russian Invasion
  • Russia refused to participate in the blockade of Britain
  • 1812, Napoleon attacked Russia with 400,000
  • Majority of Army was not French, and had little loyalty to Napoleon
  • Scorched Earth Policy destroyed Napoleon’s army and left him with only 10,000 survivors
  • Napoleon retreats
grand alliance
Grand Alliance
  • Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden joined forces
  • Napoleon was weak
  • Napoleon lost the Battle of Leipzig
  • He is exiled to the small island of Elba, but escapes to rally within 9 months
final defeat
Final Defeat
  • Last attempt to retake France fails and he is exiled to St. Helena
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