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Teaching Inequality How Poor and Minority Students are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality and What We Can Do To Change It NCTAF Meeting St. Paul, MN July 2006 July 2006 A Fundamental, But Painful Truth

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Teaching inequality l.jpg

Teaching Inequality

How Poor and Minority Students are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality and What We Can Do To Change It

NCTAF Meeting

St. Paul, MN July 2006

July 2006


A fundamental but painful truth l.jpg
A Fundamental, But Painful Truth

Poor and minority children underachieve in school not only because they often enter behind, but also because the states and schools that are supposed to serve them actually shortchange them in the one resource they most need to reach their potential – high-quality teachers.


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Percent of

Novice

Teachers

High-PovertyLow-Poverty

Schools Schools

High-MinorityLow-Minority

Schools Schools

Poor and Minority Students Are Taught by More Novice* Teachers

*Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.

Note: High-poverty schools are in the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free or reduced price lunch. Low-poverty schools are in the bottom quartile. High-minority schools are in the top quartile of minority enrollment. Low-minority schools are in the bottom quartile.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.


More classes in high poverty high minority secondary schools are taught by out of field teachers l.jpg

Percent of secondary-level classes taught by an out-of-field teacher

High-PovertyLow-Poverty

Schools Schools

High-MinorityLow-Minority

Schools Schools

More Classes in High-Poverty,High-Minority Secondary Schools Are Taught by Out-of-Field Teachers*

(<15%)

(<15%)

(>50%)

(>50%)

* Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field.

Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The Education Trust, 2002.


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Percent of middle school classes taught by a teacher without at least a minor in the subject

High-PovertyLow-Poverty

Schools Schools

High-MinorityLow-Minority

Schools Schools

Middle Grades – Classes Taught by Teachers Without at Least a College Minor in the Subject

(<15%)

(<15%)

(>50%)

(>50%)

*Data is for core academic classes.

Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The Education Trust, 2002.


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The very children who at least a minor in the subjectmost needstrong teachers – low-income, minority, and low-performing children – are assigned, on average, to teachers with less experience, less education, and less skill than those who teach other children.


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Teacher Quality at least a minor in the subjectin Wisconsin, Ohio, and Illinois

[Please refer to the report for more data and findings]


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Illinois: The Teacher Quality Index at least a minor in the subjectDeveloped by the Illinois Education Research Council

  • School Level Teacher Characteristics

    • % of Teachers with Emergency/Provisional Certification

    • % of Teachers from More/Most Selective Colleges

    • % of Teachers with < 4 Years Experience

    • % of Teachers Failing Basic Skills Test on First Attempt

    • School Average of Teachers’ ACT Composite and English Scores

School

Teacher

Quality

Index

(TQI)

Source: DeAngelis, K., Presley, J. and White, B. (2005). The Distribution of Teacher Quality in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council.


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Illinois: Using the TQI to Rank Schools at least a minor in the subject

  • Calculated TQI score for each school in the state

  • Ranked all the schools in the state from highest to lowest TQI

  • Divided that list into quartiles

  • In some cases, further subdivided the lowest quartile into lowest 10% and 11-25%

  • Examined schools by percent low-income and percent minority

Source: DeAngelis, K., Presley, J. and White, B. (2005). The Distribution of Teacher Quality in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council.


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<50% at least a minor in the subject

50-89%

90-98%

99-100%

School Percent Minority

As Minority Enrollment Increases in Illinois, Teacher Quality Decreases

Percent of Schools in

Lowest TQI Quartile

Source: Presley, J., White, B. and Gong, Y. (2005). Examining the Distribution and Impact of Teacher Quality in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council.


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As Poverty Increases in Illinois, at least a minor in the subjectTeacher Quality Decreases

Percent of Schools in

Lowest TQI Quartile

0-9%

10-29%

30-49%

50-89%

90-100%

School Percent Poverty

Source: Presley, J., White, B. and Gong, Y. (2005). Examining the Distribution and Impact of Teacher Quality in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council.


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Illinois Education Research Council’s College Readiness Index

  • Uses student ACT scores and self-reported GPA

  • Five levels of readiness:

    • Most ready

    • More ready

    • Somewhat ready

    • Minimally ready

    • Not/least ready

Source: Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council


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Most / More Index

College Ready

Somewhat / Minimally

College Ready

Not / Least

College Ready

College Readiness Increases as Teacher Quality Increases

Percent of

Students

Source: Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.

Illinois Education Research Council.


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College Math Readiness is Affected More by Teacher Quality than by Courses Taken

Percent of Students Most / More Ready

Algebra II

Trigonometry or

other advanced math

Calculus

Lowest Quartile

Lowest

11-25%

TQI

Lower-

Middle

TQI Quartile

Upper-

Middle

TQI Quartile

Highest

TQI

Quartile

Lowest

10%

TQI

Source: Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois.

Illinois Education Research Council.


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Beyond Proxies: than by Courses TakenData from Value-Added Research

  • Value-Added

    • Measures the amount of additional learning that a district, school, or teacher adds to their students during a school year

    • Based on the improvement of students from the beginning of the school year to the end


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Students Who Start 2nd Grade at About the Same Level of Math Achievement…

Average

Percentile

Rank

Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.


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…Finish 5 Achievement…th Grade Math at Dramatically Different Levels Depending on the Quality of Their Teachers

Average

Percentile

Rank

Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.


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Students Assigned to Effective Teachers Dramatically Outperformed Students Assigned to Ineffective Teachers

Average

Percentile

Rank TCAP

5th Grade

Math

Source: William L. Sanders and June C. Rivers, Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Students Academic Achievement, University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center, 1996.


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Impact of effective teachers swamps almost every other intervention, including class size reduction.


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What can you do? intervention, including class size reduction.Some actions for your consideration.


Action 1 get data systems in place l.jpg
Action 1: intervention, including class size reduction.Get data systems in place.

  • Construct data systems that can answer distribution and efficacy questions

  • Implement a unique teacher and student identifier and link the two

  • States—fund system development

  • Identify models of data systems that work


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Action 2: Get value-added systems in place. intervention, including class size reduction.

Use the infatuation with growth model approaches to accountability to link necessary systems—specifically link teachers to their students.


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Action 3: Make tenure mean something. intervention, including class size reduction.

Bar granting of tenure to low value-added teachers.


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Action 4: Use value-added as heart of new system of teacher evaluation, along with other measures already in place.


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Action 5: Provide substantial bonuses to top quartile teachers who will teach in highest poverty/minority schools.



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Some of these differences occur between poor and rich school districts.

But there are big differences within school districts, as well. In fact, in most states these differences are larger than between-district differences.


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California: Study after study shows large differences in experience and education of teachers in high vs. low-poverty schools.

These differences, of course, are reflected in different salaries.


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A Tale of Two Schools experience and education of teachers in high vs. low-poverty schools.

Granada Hills High School

Los Angeles Unified

  • 32% Latino & African American

  • 27% of students receive free or reduced price lunch

  • Academic Performance Index = 773

Locke High School

Los Angeles Unified

  • 99% Latino & African American

  • 66% of students receive free or reduced price lunch

  • Academic Performance Index = 440

Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data


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In accordance with district and state practice, both schools report the same average teacher salary.


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The average teacher at Locke High School actually gets paid an estimated $8,034 less every year than his counterpart at Granada Hills High School.

If Locke spent as much as Granada Hills on teacher salaries for its 119 teachers, the school budget would increase by nearly a million dollars ($956,056) every year.


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You don’t have to just sit by and watch these inequities happen.You can change budgeting and reporting requirements.California did.Oakland did.


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Transparency & Budgeting happen.

  • Districts should use weighted student formulas and require debiting of actual salaries, not average.

  • Transparency in spending on teacher salaries.

  • Add to school report cards data on actual teacher average salary

  • Add to school report cards data on the % of inexperience teachers (less than 2 years)

  • Require an annual report on the distribution of teacher talent, and state/district progress (in compliance with NCLB “equity provisions”)


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Action 7: Study and evaluate teacher preparation programs by the value-added of their graduates.

Ohio does.

Louisiana does.


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Action 8: Higher Education Reform by the value-added of their graduates.

  • Ensure teacher prep programs focus on the power of teachers in HNS to turn students

  • Study school organization, instructional practices of effective HNS

  • Set goals for graduates in HNS

  • Collect and report quantity data (e.g., how many teachers go to HNS? How many stay?)

  • Collect and report quality data (e.g., value-added data on graduates)


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Action 9: Study the high performers. Use what you learn to reshape teacher preparation and professional development.


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Action 10: Leadership reshape teacher preparation and professional development.

  • Invest in preparing principals for HNS (e.g., knowing how to promote success in student learning, knowing how to hire strong teachers and how to evaluate effective teaching)

  • Tap into teacher leadership (create new roles for effective teachers)


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Action 11: Contract Provisions reshape teacher preparation and professional development.

  • Re-examine contracts with a focus on getting most talented teachers in HNS

  • States support districts that invite outside contract analysis

  • Move up hiring timelines

  • Consider earlier hiring timelines for high-needs schools (“the draft strategy”)

  • Allow principals/teachers in HNS to select teachers of their own choosing, and protect those teachers from being “bumped”


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Action 12: Recognition reshape teacher preparation and professional development.

  • Honor and celebrate strong teachers who teach in high needs schools (e.g., inviting teachers to serve on advisory committees, mayoral reception, listening to them)


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The Education Trust reshape teacher preparation and professional development.

Heather G. Peske, Ed.D.

Senior Associate for Teacher Quality

(202) 293-1217 ext. 314

hpeske@edtrust.org

www.edtrust.org


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