Scientific Investigations The Nature of Scientific Research Science Builds on Good Observations May be done by observing and reflecting on what other scientists have done May be done by one’s own careful and thoughtful observations (seeing what others do not see)
The Nature of Scientific Research
Can you think like a scientist?
Test your own powers of observation next →
Look at these five trees closely. How many testable hypotheses can you generate?
Students can create multiple hypotheses from this picture. Have them work in groups to come up with some, check for accuracy and testability.
Good Research is Hypothesis-Driven.
What does this mean?
Why is it true?
A possible explanation for an observation or a scientific problem. . .
Science is a Cyclic Process:
Design Test of Hypothesis
How do we test and control what happens in our experiments so the results can be trusted?
Plant with copper added
Plant with no copper added
Students can easily plot their results on to a graph!
Let’s find out what happens when we conduct the tests!!
A General Rule in Science
Wright brothers Wilbur (R) and Orville (at controls) with their 1903 airplane “Kitty Hawk” on first flight lasting twelve seconds. Location: Kitty Hawk, NC, US Date taken: December 17, 1903
Experiments should be repeated, and similar results should occur each time for the results to be found as valid.
1.Test subject may be insensitive or too sensitive to the variable you expose it to.
2.Way of exposing variable to test subject may not be
3.Dose may not be adequate.
4.Time of exposure may be too short or too long.
5.Too few test subjects could produce results that are not representative of a larger group.
OBSERVATION: What is happening?
QUESTION: What would happen if .....?
HYPOTHESIS: ________ should happen if...…
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES: _________or _________ or _________ should happen if ..…
EXPERIMENT: Collect the data.
RESULTS: What actually happened?
CONCLUSION: The hypothesis was correct/incorrect because.....
The process of research can involve several steps. These levels are summarized below.
Look at this picture and develop a hypothesis that is being tested.
In Science, Decisions are Based on Evidence!
Consequences of Scientific Evidence
Make science fun and safe!!