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Romantic Period . Romantic Period. Suppressed revolution French emotional reaction Middle class dominance Underclass causes adopted Frustrations caused by Napoleon Revolution of 1848. Principles of the Romantic Era. Restriction no longer important Emphasis on emotion rather than reason

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Romantic Period

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Romantic Period


Romantic Period

  • Suppressed revolution

    • French emotional reaction

    • Middle class dominance

    • Underclass causes adopted

    • Frustrations caused by Napoleon

    • Revolution of 1848


Principles of the Romantic Era

  • Restriction no longer important

  • Emphasis on emotion rather than reason

  • Nationalism

  • Stories depicted

  • Nature in a mystical way

  • Exotic


"The use of romantic in English goes back to the 17C when it was used to denote imagination and inventiveness in storytelling and, soon after, to characterize scenery and paintings. It served as a synonym to harmonious, picturesque. At the core of the epithet, obviously, is a proper name: Rome, Roman. From the start, the image is many-sided. Centuries after the fall of the empire, the vernacular spoken along the Mediterranean was no longer vulgar Latin but a variable dialect called roman. From it came French, Spanish, Italian, and other romance languages.. After a time, roman was applied to tales written in that dialect as spoken inn southern France. These tales were often about love and adventure, as contrasted with epic narratives or satires. In French today the word for novel is still roman, while in English a romance is one kind of novel and by further extension one kind of love affair... In the last years of the 18C, Romantic generated the -ist form to designate those dissatisfied with the neo-classic style and enthusiastic about new forms in art and thought... The one link between the temper of the period and the original meaning of the word is that Romanticism validated passion and risk. The two are inevitably connected; but as we shall see, they neither exclude reason, nor overlook the real. On the contrary, the spirit of adventure in Romanticism aims at enlarging experience by exploring the real."

– Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p467-8.


Characteristics of Music

  • Departure from Classical era

    • Message in the music (One word description?)

      • Haydn vs. Beethoven

    • Beethoven’s 5th in minor/major key

      • Loss of power in the major

    • Beethoven’s 5th in style of Haydn

      • Loss of power

  • Use of dynamics

  • Orchestra grew in size


Characteristics of Music

  • Emotional directions

  • Folk songs

  • Longer symphonies

  • Virtuosos

  • Underlying themes carried throughout the symphony

    • Beethoven’s 5th

      • 1st Theme (dark)

      • 2nd Theme (light)

      • 3rd Movement (theme revisited)

      • Triumph of light


Beethoven

  • Bridged Classical and Romantic periods

    • Form used contextually

    • Motifs

    • Works as attempts for perfection

  • Manifested Romantic ideal

    • Pastoral, Symphony No. 6

    • Symphony 9, Ode to Joy

    • Eroica

    • Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Pathetique


Hector Berlioz

  • French composer

  • Story printed in program

  • Symphonie Fantastique

  • Requiem


Franz Schubert

  • Vienna Austria

  • Child prodigy

  • Wrote lieder—songs with emotional theme

    • Erlkönig

  • Song cycle

  • Wrote for fewer instruments

    • Unfinished Symphony

    • Symphony in C major

  • Many works were lost


Felix Mendelssohn

  • Early life

  • Tried to preserve Classical style

    • Brought Bach out of obscurity

  • Symphonies were classical form and romantic tone

  • Midsummer Night’s Dream


Nicolo Paganini

  • Italian

  • Violin virtuosos

  • Ghoulish appearance

  • “The Cannon”


Frederic Chopin

  • Child prodigy

  • Sickly his whole life

  • Made money by giving piano concerts

  • Composed mazurkas, preludes and polonaises

    • Etude Opus 10

    • Polonaise in A flat major

    • Minute Waltz


Franz Liszt

  • Hungarian child prodigy

  • Greatest showman

  • Kind to other musicians

  • Several love affairs

  • Les Preludes

  • Hungarian Rhapsody 2

  • Wilde Jagd


Richard Wagner

  • German nationalism

  • Not a prodigy

  • Immoral life

  • Ludwig II

  • Opera

    • Leitmotif

  • Depicted myths and heroes

    • Die Walküre (Ride of the Valkyries)

    • Tannhäuser (end of the overture)

    • Tristan and Isolde (Unresolved – Liebestod)


Giuseppe Verdi

  • Greatest Italian style opera

    • Aida

    • La Traviata

    • Rigoletto

      • La Donna e Mobile

  • Innovation

    • Focus on human emotion

    • De-emphasis on bel-canto style

      • Rossini: Barber of Seville

    • Excellent librettos

    • Orchestra an important component


Bedrich Smetana

  • Czech

  • Bartered Bride

  • Die Moldau

    • River running through Prague


Johann Strauss

  • Father was excellent composer

  • Played in father’s orchestra

  • More popular than his father

  • Waltzes

    • Embodiment of Viennese life

    • Blue Danube Waltz

    • Tales of the Vienna Woods


Johann Brahms

  • German

  • Imitated Beethoven

  • Mentored by Robert and Clara Schumann

  • Hungarian Dance #5


Russian Composers

  • Moussorgsky,Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov

    • Russian Easter Overture

  • Used Russian themes

  • Helped each other

  • Flight of the Bumble Bee

  • Night on Bald Mountain

Almaty, Kazakhstan


Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky

  • Russian

  • Used French style

  • Ballets are most famous

    • Nutcracker, Sleeping Beauty

    • Romeo and Juliet

  • Deep emotion for his sad life

    • Symphony No. 6 – Pathètique


Edvard Grieg

  • Norwegian

  • Peer Gynt

    • Hall of the Mountain King


Antonin Dvorak

  • Czech

  • Inspired by Smetana

  • Head of Conservatory in Prague

  • Director of a NY music conservatory

    • 3 years

    • Composed New World Symphony


Gustav Mahler

  • Jewish

  • The Hunters’ Funeral Procession


Principles of Art

  • Abandoned strict rules of neoclassical

  • Conveyed personal feeling of artist

  • Used nationalism

  • Depicted the exotic

  • Landscapes became important


"If you want to do art you must first study the rules, second study the great masters, third forget the rules, because genius begins where trite rules end but you can't get there until you've obeyed the rules first."

– Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)


Francisco Goya -Classical Period


Franciso Goya – Romantic Period3rd of May 1808


Goya

Saturn Devouring One of His Sons


Eugene DelacroixLiberty Leading the People


DelacroixThe Death of Sardanapalus


Joseph Mallord William TurnerThe Fighting "Temeraire"


Joseph Mallord William TurnerThe Slave Ship


"From the early 16C to the end of the 18C common opinion held that religious and history painting were the highest genres. The one edified, the other reminded; both decorated. Portraits came next, landscapes lagged behind. For nature was not yet loved for itself alone. In the early Renaissance it served as a background only, and even then it was 'humanized' by the presence of temples, columns, or other architectural fragments, along with actual figures."

– Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence, Perennial, 2000, p71.


John ConstableHay Wain


Literature


Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

  • Raised the level of German literature

  • The Sufferings of Young Werther

  • Dr. Faustus


Sir Walter Scott

  • Scotland

  • Historical novels

  • Influenced by Goethe

  • Popular in his own life

  • Ivanhoe

  • Lady of the Lake


William WordsworthSamuel Taylor Coleridge

  • English

  • Lyrical ballads

    • Rime of the Ancient Mariner

  • Themes: relationship between humans and nature


Lord Byron

  • Art was an inner expression

  • Participation in revolutions

  • Strong personality

  • Italy and Switzerland

  • Childe Harold

  • The Flying Dutchman

  • The Wandering Jew


Percy Bysshe Shelley

  • English

  • Strongly liberal

  • Friends with Lord Byron

  • Married Mary Wollstonecraft

    • Frankenstein


Leo Tolstoy

  • Russian

  • War and Peace

  • Anna Karenina

  • Born to nobility but lived on simple farm

  • Freed the serfs


Victor Hugo

  • Son of Napoleonic general

  • Involved in French politics

  • Les Miserables

  • Hunchback of Notre Dame


Alexandre Dumas

  • Imitated style of Scott

  • Novels supported extravagant life

    • Employed several people

  • Count of Monte Cristo

  • The Three Musketeers

  • The Man in the Iron Mask


Thank You


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