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Properties of Matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Shonda Wooden Donna Polite Manjot Choudhary Natasha Derden Mary Irvin Summer Science Institute- Chemistry July 2009. Properties of Matter. OBJECTIVE. Students will identify the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and a gas in order to investigate the physical properties of matter.

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Shonda Wooden

Donna Polite

ManjotChoudhary

Natasha Derden

Mary Irvin

Summer Science Institute- Chemistry

July 2009

Properties of Matter

• Students will identify the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and a gas in order to investigate the physical properties of matter.

• Students will identify physical properties and changes and chemical properties and changes in order to investigate the properties of matter.

• Students will explain what happens to a substance during changes from a liquid to a solid in order to investigate the properties of an “Oobleck.”

Warm-up

• Do liquids have a shape of their own?

If not, what shape do liquids take?

2. SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES

• Which is the most difficult to handle?

• Which is the easiest to handle?

4. Create a KWL Chart for “Properties of Matter” and complete the “K” column for what you already know.

PART I: Teacher Demo

• Show 100 mL of water in the 3 states of matter:

a) frozen (freeze a cup of water overnight to show the freezing point of the solid)

b) room temperature (water from the faucet to identify the liquid state)

c) boiled (boil water over a hot plate to show the boiling point of a gas)

PART II: United Streaming Video

• Prior to viewing the video, students will answer the following questions:

• If you place an ice cube in the freezer, will it melt?

• If you add salt to water before placing it in the freezer, will it freeze?

• If you leave ice on the counter, will it melt?

• If you put ice in hot water, will it melt?

PART II: United Streaming Video

• Title of the Video:

Real World Science: Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

• Time Period for the Video: 13.24 minutes

• Website location of the Video: www.unitedstreaming.com

• After reading in small groups:

• Students will summarize the details of the text through a class discussion with the teacher.

• As the teacher ask questions describing the states of matter, students will identify the state by holding up the correct “matter models” (Petri dishes that contain marbles that represent the particles of either a solid, liquid, or gas).

• Following the questions, students will draw the models of the three Petri dishes used to identify the states of matter and choose and object or substance to sketch as an example.

• any property that can be observed without transforming the substance into another substance States of Matter

What are some physical properties?

• color

• melting and boiling point

• odor

• mass, color, freezing point

A change that does not transform the substance into another substance

Some physical changes would be:

• boiling

• melting

• subliming

• dissolving NaCl into water

any property that cannot be studied without transforming the substance into a different substance

iron rusts, paper burns

• Chemical change — change that transforms one substance into another substance

• Example- Burning hydrogen (H2) in oxygen (O2) gives H2O.

Sure Signs of a Chemical Change

• Heat

• Light

• Gas Produced (not from boiling!)

• Precipitate – a solid formed by mixing two liquids together

• Burning

• Oxidation of metal, ex. rusting

http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCESoft/CCA/CCA0/MOVIES/S1047.MOV

• physical

• chemical

• physical

• physical

• chemical

• Examples:

• melting point

• flammable

• density

• magnetic

• tarnishes in air

• Examples:

• rusting iron?

• dissolving in water?

• burning a log?

• melting ice?

• grinding spices?

Most Common States (or Phases) of Matter

a) solid (definite shape and volume)

b) liquid (definite volume, no definite shape)

c) gas (no definite shape or volume)

d) plasma (found in lightening bolts & neon signs)

Key Concept: The fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles causes a solid to have a definite shape and volume

• A solidis a kind of matter that has a fixed shape and a fixed volume. Your pencil is a solid. The shape and volume of your pencil will not change if you move the pencil from place to place.

• The different elements and compounds that make up matter can be called particles. The particles of a solid are packed closely together.

• The particles of a solid cannot move from their spot within the solid. However, the particles can move slightly back and forth in place.

• Is the following sentence true or false? The particles that make up a solid do not move at all. ___________________

Answer: False, particles do move slightly from side to side.

2. The picture shows two containers with particles of a kind of matter in each. Circle the letter of the container that shows how the particles of a solid are arranged.

B

A

Liquids of matter in each. Circle the letter of the container that shows how the particles of a solid are arranged.

Key Concept: Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has no definite shape. However, a liquid does have a definite volume.

• A liquid is a kind of matter that has a fixed volume. However, the shape of a liquid changes with the shape of its container.

• Water is a liquid. As you pour water from one cup to another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

• The particles of a liquid are packed closely together. However, these particles can move away from their spots.

What a Liquid looks like at the particle level another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

Questions another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

3. What are the characteristics of a liquid?

• Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has no definite shape, but it does have a definite volume.

4. volume shape particles another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

• A liquid changes ________________ depending on the liquid’s container.

b. A liquid has the same _____________ no matter what container the liquid is in.

Gases another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

Key Concept: As they move, gas particles spread apart, filling all the space available. Thus, a gas has neither definite shape nor definite volume.

• A gas is a kind of matter that easily changes volume and shape.

• Air is a gas another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.. When you blow air into a balloon, the air takes the shape of the balloon. When you let the air out of the balloon, the particles spread out into the room.

• Gas particles can move around freely. Gas particles can either spread apart or be squeezed together.

What a gas looks like at the particle level another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

Comparing States of Matter another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

Question another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.

• Which is a gas?

a. fruit juice

b. air

c. books

• Is the following sentence true or false? Gas particles can move around freely.

ELABORATE another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.“Oobleck”

• See handout for lab objectives, materials, and procedure.

• Pre-LAB: complete the

“What Is Oobleck?” pre-lab activity and develop a hypothesis.

• During the lab, complete the lab write-up in your groups. (HINT… First group to complete the lab, will receive a reward.)

• Following the lab, you will:

b) summarize your Oobleck lab (give you opinion and share something that you have learned).

c) complete the States of Matter graphic organizer

EVALUATION another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.(Homework)

b) summarize your Oobleck lab (give you opinion and share something that you have learned).

c) complete the States of Matter graphic organizer

EVALUATE another, the shape of the water changes to match the shape of the cup. The volume of the water stays the same.(Homework)

States Of Matter

COMPLETE THE GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

GAS

SOLID

LIQUID

• Define each state of matter.

• How are the particles packed?

• Draw a model showing how the particles are packed.

• Give 3 examples of each.

• Does it have definite shape, definite volume, or both?