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Air Emissions of Layer Barns (Buckeye Case) Building Environment Research & Education Albert J. Heber, Professor [email protected] AgAirQuality.com Agricultural and Biological Engineering Purdue University Objectives of Layer Barn Monitoring for Buckeye Case

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air emissions of layer barns buckeye case
Air Emissions of Layer Barns(Buckeye Case)

Building Environment

Research & Education

Albert J. Heber, Professor

[email protected]

AgAirQuality.com

Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Purdue University

objectives of layer barn monitoring for buckeye case
Objectives of Layer Barn Monitoring for Buckeye Case
  • Baseline particulate and ammonia emissions from three layer barns.
  • Compare emissions from new belt-battery barn with high-rise barns.
  • Evaluate effect of particulate impaction curtain on PM emissions of high-rise barn.
  • Evaluate effect of feed additive on ammonia emissions at high-rise barn.
belt battery barn test
Belt-Battery Barn Test

Wind sensor

168,000-bird

belt battery barn

TEOM

slide4

٭

٭

٭

٭

٭

٭

Monitoring Plan Belt-Battery Barn

٭

٭

٭

٭

٭

٭

٭

S

Lab

٭

٭

Barn 2 (belt batteries)

Thermocouple

RH/Temp probe

٭Activity sensor

Air sampling (1-7)

Static pressure port

Wind sensor

S

Anemometer (SVA)

TEOM microbalance

Solar sensor

F22

F16

F2

F8

F23

F1

4

5

6

7

Belt travel

Front

٭

Rear

Barn 2 (161.6 m x 15.85 m)

٭

3

1

2

F46

F24

Instrument

shelter

F43

F35

F27

N

8

S

Heated raceway

Instrument

shelter

Manure belt

exhaust air monitoring
Exhaust Air Monitoring

TSP sampler

°C

PM10 sampler

Calibration gas line

Gas sampling

slide6

Instruments/Analyzers

PIR NH3 monitor

PM10 monitors

CL NH3 monitor

UPS

slide7

Schematic of Air Sampling, Measurement, Calibration and GSS Test

P: pump

F: filter

Bypass pumping circuit

Exhausts

M: manifold

S: solenoid

Teflon tubing (in mm):

9.5 OD 6.4 ID

Sampling control

Data acquisition

6.4 OD 3.2 ID

Vinyl tubing (in mm):

6.4 OD 3.2 ID

M1

M1

22.2 OD 15.9 ID

P1

Fittings:

Teflon

Analyzers

Nylon or other

F

Flow restrictor

NH

NH

NH

3

3

3

NH

3

P3

Sampling probes, 10- 115 m long

S8

Pressure

sensor

NH

NH

p

p

p

3

3

NH

Fan 2

3

M3

M3

Fan 9

CO

CO

CO

(2K)

(2K)

(2K)

2

2

2

CO

2

Fan 15

Mass

flow meter

Bag fill

port

Fan 22

f

f

Fan 29

M2

M2

P2

Disconnect for

leakage test

Fan 35

Rotameter

(0- 250 mL/min)

Fan 41

Balance air

control valve

Ambient

S1

F

Pressure

sensor

S9

p

p

p

Sampling circuit

P

P

P4

Pressure gage

(optional)

Analyzer calibration

circuit

Calibration

gases

Leak test

circuit

Diluter

Diluter

Jar

gas trends on belt battery test pc
Gas Trends on Belt-Battery Test PC

This graph shows an almost perfect increase of ammonia from the north end of the barn to the south end of the barn due to the accumulation of manure on the belt, which traveled only 1/ 7 of its length per day. At the same time, the carbon dioxide concentration was about the same indicating similar ventilation and number of birds along the length of the barn.

N to S locations 

Ambient

Ammonia (CL)

Ammonia (PIR)

Carbon dioxide

Sample airflow rate

belt battery barn nh 3 concentration and ambient temperature

Mean barn exhaust NH3 concentration = 7.4 ppm

Ambient concentration = 1.6 ppm

Ambient temperature

Barn exhaust NH3

Ambient NH3

Belt-Battery Barn NH3 Concentration and Ambient Temperature

30

25

C

20

o

15

Ammonia concentration, ppm;

temperature,

10

5

0

8/8

8/15

8/22

8/29

9/5

9/12

9/19

9/26

10/3

Date

belt battery barn ammonia emission and barn ventilation rate

2

600

Mean NH3 emission= 0.60 lb/yr-bird, Ventilation =379 m3/s

500

400

NH3 Emission, lb/yr-bd

Ventilation, m3/s

1

300

Ventilation

200

NH3

emission

100

0

0

8/8

8/15

8/22

8/29

9/5

9/12

9/19

9/26

10/3

Date

Belt-Battery Barn Ammonia Emission and Barn Ventilation Rate
slide12

Activity Page at Belt-Battery Lab

Ambient PM

Birds

Bird Activity

Barn PM

Workers

Researcher

(in lab)

Manure belt

belt battery barn pm 10 concentrations and emissions
Belt-Battery Barn PM10 Concentrations and Emissions

1000

25

Mean barn PM10 = 316 μg/m3,

Ambient PM10 =124 mg/m3

Gross emission = 10.8 kg/d or 64.2 g/d-bird

800

20

600

15

PM10concentration, μg/m3

PM10emission, kg/d-barn

Gross PM10 emission

Barn exhaust PM10

400

10

200

5

Ambient PM10

0

0

8/8

8/22

9/5

9/19

10/3

Date

overall means at belt battery layer barn 42 days aug 10 sept 30 2004
Overall Means at Belt Battery Layer Barn(42 days: Aug. 10 – Sept. 30, 2004)
  • Inventory: 167,500 birds
  • Temperature: 20.9°C
  • Ventilation airflow: 379 m3/s
  • NH3 concentration: 7.4 ppm
  • NH3 emission:
    • 1.5 g/s
    • Maximum daily mean = 572 lb/d
    • 50 tons/yr
    • 0.60 lb/yr-bird
  • PM10 concentration: 470 μg/m3
  • Net (gross) PM10 emission:
    • 37.3 g/d-bird (64.2 g/d-bird)
    • 2.51 tons/yr (4.34 tons/yr)
test of high rise barns
Test of High-Rise Barns

168,000-bird

high-rise barn

Instrument

shelter

slide17

Monitoring Plan

Monitoring Plan

S

S

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Cages

Cages

B

B

(4 tiers)

(4 tiers)

*

*

*

*

Pit

Pit

Pit

Pit

*

*

T

T

T

T

PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC

Barn 1

Barn 1

Barn 2

Barn 2

OFIS

OFIS

Thermocouple

Thermocouple

RH/Temp probe

RH/Temp probe

*

*

Activity sensor

Activity sensor

Fan vibration sensor

Fan vibration sensor

V

V

Air sampling (1

Air sampling (1

-

-

13)

13)

Static pressure port

Static pressure port

Wind sensor

Wind sensor

Beta gauge PM monitor

Beta gauge PM monitor

B

B

Anemometer (SPA)

Anemometer (SPA)

TEOM PM monitor

TEOM PM monitor

Solar sensor

Solar sensor

TSP sampler

TSP sampler

S

S

T

T

Fan number

Fan number

F47

F47

F38

F38

F29

F29

F50

F50

F26

F26

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

8

8

8

12

12

11

11

8

8

10

10

9

9

9

9

10

10

9

9

10

10

8

8

10

10

9

9

10

10

9

9

10

10

9

9

8

8

10

10

9

9

10

10

9

9

9

9

10

10

8

8

*

*

*

*

*

*

8

8

8

8

8

8

*

*

*

Particulate impaction

Particulate impaction

Barn 2 (201 m x 21 m)

Barn 2 (201 m x 21 m)

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

curtain (PIC)

curtain (PIC)

*

*

*

2

2

2

2

*

*

*

Fan stages

Fan stages

1

1

*

*

*

7

7

7

10

10

9

9

5

5

6

6

7

7

4

4

5

5

6

6

3

3

7

7

4

4

7

7

6

6

5

5

7

7

3

3

7

7

4

4

6

6

3

3

7

7

4

4

6

6

5

5

T

T

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

F25

F25

F1

F1

F22

F22

F13

F13

F4

F4

N

N

On

On

-

-

farm instrument

farm instrument

B

B

*

*

shelter (OFIS)

shelter (OFIS)

F47

F47

F38

F38

F29

F29

F50

F50

F26

F26

13

13

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

1

1

1

5

5

6

6

*

*

*

T

T

4

4

8

8

7

7

10

10

9

9

8

8

9

9

5

5

9

9

7

7

10

10

4

4

10

10

7

7

8

8

5

5

9

9

7

7

10

10

7

7

9

9

10

10

*

*

*

3

3

3

3

1

1

*

*

*

*

*

*

Barn 1 (201 m x 21 m)

Barn 1 (201 m x 21 m)

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

S

S

*

*

*

*

*

*

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

2

2

4

4

*

*

*

8

8

9

9

10

10

6

6

8

8

4

4

10

10

7

7

9

9

5

5

9

9

6

6

10

10

4

4

8

8

6

6

10

10

9

9

6

6

8

8

5

5

6

6

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

F25

F25

F1

F1

F22

F22

F13

F13

F4

F4

Curtain Test at High Rise Barns

curtain test dac screen
Curtain Test DAC Screen

Particulate Impaction Curtain

pm 10 concentrations at high rise barns
PM10 Concentrations at High-Rise Barns

Mean PM10 concentrations, B1 = 375;

B2 pit center =565; B2 curtain east = 343;

B2 curtain west = 361 mg/m3

Barn 2 pit center

Curtain west

Barn 1, no curtain

Curtain east

pm 10 emissions of high rise barns
PM10 Emissions of High-Rise Barns

Mean PM10 emissions, B1 = 60;

B2 pit center = 108;

B2 curtain treated = 72 g/day-bird

Barn 2 pit center

Barn 2 curtain

Barn 1 control

nh 3 concentrations at high rise barns
NH3 Concentrations at High-Rise Barns

Mean Barn1 exhaust NH3 = 14.9 ppm;

Barn2 exhaust NH3 = 16.4 ppm;

ambient = 3.9 ppm

Downtime

Barn 2 exhaust NH3

Barn 1 exhaust NH3

Ambient NH3

ammonia emission and airflow at high rise barns
Ammonia Emission and Airflow at High Rise Barns

Mean B1 NH3 emission = 0.73 lb-yr-bird;

B2 NH3 emission = 1.12 lb-yr-bird

Barn 1 Airflow

Barn 2 Airflow

Barn 2 NH3

Barn 1 NH3

overall means at hr layer barns 37 d august 1 sept 30 2004
Overall Means at HR Layer Barns (37 d: August 1 – Sept. 30, 2004)
  • 167,700 birds
  • Ammonia concentration: 15.6 ppm
  • Temperature: 19.0°C
  • Barn airflow: 329 m3/s
  • Ammonia:
    • 2.2 g/s (max daily mean = 1,131 lb/d)
    • 77 tons/yr
    • 0.93 lb/yr-bird
  • PM10 concentration: 470 μg/m3
  • PM10 emission: 30.8 g/yr-bird = 5.6 tons/yr
  • Curtain reduced PM10 by 39%.
nh 3 emission factors rates
NH3 Emission Factors/Rates

EF

lb/yr-bird

Reference

Barn-days

Emission Factor

High-rise barns

Valli et al., 1991

20

87

lb NH3/AU-yr

0.87

Yang et al., 2000

41.6-74.8

% of N

0.90

Lim et al., 2004

125

251-718

g/d-AU

1.26

Ni, et al., 2004

26

322-1437

lb/d

1.15

Liang et al., 2004

520

0.17-1.74

g/d-hen

0.69

Heber et al. 2004

74

0.93

lb/yr-bird

0.93

Belt-battery barns

Heber et al. 2004

42

0.60

lb/yr-bird

0.60

Liang et al., 2004

208

0.01-0.23

g/d-hen

0.06

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