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Evolution of Complex Systems Lecture 8: Politics and law Peter Andras / Bruce Charlton [email protected] [email protected] Objectives Society Information subsystem: political system Politics Information subsystem of politics: the legal system The legal system

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Evolution of complex systems l.jpg

Evolution of Complex Systems

Lecture 8: Politics and law

Peter Andras / Bruce Charlton

[email protected]

[email protected]


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Objectives

  • Society

  • Information subsystem: political system

  • Politics

  • Information subsystem of politics: the legal system

  • The legal system

  • Adaptation in the political and legal systems


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Human communications

  • Specialized behavioural patterns: human language

  • Specialized brain subsystems: language understanding and production

  • Human languages


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Society

  • Many organisms act as communication units

  • Society = system of communications between organisms

  • Human society = system of human communications

  • Human languages define human societies


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Politics – early times

  • Tribes: everybody participates in the decision making

  • E.g., what to do (hunt, move, etc.), how to interpret the environment (flooding, attack by animals, etc.)

  • Tribe leaders lead the decision making process


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Politics – advanced tribes

  • E.g., large migratory tribes (huns, gepides, etc.)

  • Fighters (action), priests/shamans (perception) specialize in decision making


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Politics – early states

  • Egypt, Greek city states, etc.

  • Fighters, priests, administrators

  • Administration: system of rules about decision making (e.g., selection of the ruler)


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Politics – early large states

  • E.g., Rome, China

  • Large and stable

  • Elaborated rules of politics

  • Large administration


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Politics – large integrated states

  • E.g., England – 17th-18th century, Germany – 19th century, France – 17th-18th century

  • Complicated system of political decision making

  • Institutionalized and uniform legal system

  • Parliament, parties, public administration


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Politics – democratic states

  • E.g., US, north-west Europe

  • Parties, elections, rule of law

  • Constitution, professional large public administration


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Politics – 1

  • Description of the system of human communications

  • Description of how to manage memories of human communications

  • E.g., describes how to interpret environmental events, how to act, how to allocate resources (communications) within the society


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Politics – 2

  • Actions: what to do, how to distribute human resources

  • E.g., where to build what


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Politics – 3

  • Perception: collecting information about what is happening in the society / environment

  • E.g., collecting and interpreting information about the natural resources


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Political power

  • Power: decide on actions and perceptions

  • Power: ability to determine what should be referenced in the context of communications about resources

  • Power: the logic of selection of methods to manage memories of a human society


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Communications in politics – 1

  • Politician talk: subset of society

  • Everybody participates

  • E.g., voting in elections, participation in political organizations, meetings, etc.


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Communications in politics – 2

  • Specialist language: sharper communication rules

  • The sentences should be relevant from the point of view of power: who does what – action & perception / interpretation


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Referencing in politics

  • Political communications reference mostly to other political communications

  • E.g., the voting communications refences earlier political communications by party representatives


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The logic of power

  • Communications in politics follow the logic of power

  • Does the communication lead to more power, preservation of power, avoiding the reduction of power – in expectation

  • Political communications – communications that can be understood in the context of logic of power


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Political system

  • All social communications organized around the logic of power

  • Communications that follow the referencing rules of politics, referencing rules are determined by the logic of power

  • Communications about the society and power: information subsystem of the society

  • Logic of power – definition of the identity of the political system


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The boundary of politics

  • Dense communications / referencing within politics / rare referencing to non-political communications

  • The boundary is determined by the logic of power, communications are part of politics if they follow the logic of power


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Actions of politics

  • Political communication patterns that act upon the environment / society

  • E.g., set of political communications leading to the building of a highway


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Perceptions of politics

  • Changes in the political communications with respect to expectations

  • E.g., local power talk leads to changing voting behaviour in an MP


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Meaningful communications

  • References other political communications

  • Provides reference for further political communications

  • Follows the rules of political communications – fits the identity of the political system


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Meaningless communications

  • Communications that do not lead to continuations – faults

  • E.g., anarchist communications


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Revolutions

  • Communications about power but do not follow the established continuation rules of the actual political system – error

  • E.g., revolutionary politics in 1917


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Extension and reproduction

  • Political communications are generated to maintain/reproduce and expand the political system

  • The system boundaries are within the society

  • Overgrowing is bad

  • The political system should fit the society that is described by it


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Over expansion of politics

  • Ignoring the general communication rules of the society

  • Domination of the society

  • E.g., communism, everything becomes a political issue


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Individuals and politics

  • Everybody performs as communication unit for the political system

  • The political communications of communications units may differ significantly (e.g., cast or class system)

  • There are some units which produce large amount of communications that are part of the political system  politicians


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The state

  • The organizational context of the political system – structural constraints on political communications

  • Makes politics more structured – sharpened continuation rules

  • Societies with elaborate states are likely to be more complex


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Professional politics

  • Communication units specializing in political communications

  • They follow the fine details of the political communication rules

  • They generate the largest part of the political system

  • E.g., parties, Parliament


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Political institutions

  • Institutions: systematic rule sets that channel political communications and provide meaning for them by making them reference the rules of the institution

  • Institution – coherent set of structure constraints

  • E.g., speech in the Parliament vs. speech at home

  • Political institutions compose the state


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Subsystems of politics

  • Specialist political communications

  • They may form by the establishment of corresponding political institutions

  • The same institutional framework may lead to the formation of several subsystems

  • E.g., parties, Parliament, elections


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Parties

  • Specialized political communications about power in some particular power paradigm (i.e., particular set of communication rules)

  • E.g., socialist, liberal, conservative

  • Parties develop together with ideologies


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Elections

  • An institutional context for low level political communications; add content to simple communication acts (i.e., voting)

  • It is about choosing the best fitting identity of the society


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Parliament

  • Institutional framework for high level political communications

  • Parties are represented according to election results

  • The dominant party or coalition represents the currently valid interpretation of the society model by making legislation about the society and power distribution within the society


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Identity violations – Political system

  • Fault: communication that is aimed to be political communication but does not fit the logic of politics – e.g. a political speech about the right of penguins to wear guns

  • Error: lack of continuation of political communications – e.g. lack of public participation in elections

  • Failure: massive shrinking of the political system – e.g. revolution


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Adaptation – Political system

  • Would-be politicians with senseless speeches are marginalized within the party

  • The party changes its policies to gain more public support and more votes at elections

  • The parliament changes the legislation to fit changed interests of the society

  • The revolution leads to a new political system


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Laws

  • Rules regulating the distribution of power

  • Reference actions and perceptions of the political system

  • Laws are made in the Parliament

  • E.g., laws regulating elections, highway constructions, penal procedures, etc.


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Regulations

  • Rules of power distribution in various organizations (e.g., schools, companies)

  • Refer to actions and perceptions of the power system of the organization

  • Constraints on political communications


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Legal communications

  • Communications about the rules of power distribution

  • They are descriptions of the political system

  • Describe how the power distribution / the political system works


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Examples

  • Rights of participation in politics

  • Criminal justice

  • Disputes between neighbours


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Legal communications - types

  • Making the laws

  • Interpreting the laws

  • Applying the laws

  • Complementing and modifying the laws


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Legal communications - memories

  • Legal communications describe how the political communications are organised – represent a memory of these communications and facilitate the reproduction of these communications

  • Legal communications (laws, regulations) are memory communications of the political system


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The legal system

  • Laws and communications about and referencing other laws

  • Legal system = the information subsystem of the political system

  • Legal logic: legal or illegal – identity of the legal system


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Legal system - language

  • System language defined by the applicability of the legal logic

  • A communication is part of the legal system if it can be assessed / referenced in legal / illegal terms


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The boundary

  • Dense communications / references to other legal communications

  • Rare references to other communications

  • E.g., lawyers, judges discussing the application and interpretation of the law


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Actions

  • Legal communications that lead to changes of the model of power distribution; e.g., application of the law that solves a previously unresolved issue, new legislation

  • They should fit the logic of legal / illegal in the context of the existing legal system, refer to other communications (e.g., laws) and provide basis for new communications


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Perceptions

  • Changes in the political system / power distribution system lead to changes in legal communications

  • These changes may trigger modified actions of the legal system

  • E.g., extension of voting rights


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Meaningful

  • Communications that fit the legal system and contribute to further extension of it – fit the identity (logic) of the legal system

  • E.g., good application of laws, rule of law


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Meaningless

  • Communications that do not fit the rules of the legal system

  • E.g., revolutionary legislation (confiscation of property), corrupt judicial process

  • Faulty communications, errors

  • Lead to the destruction of the legal system


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Individuals and the legal system

  • Everybody participates by having legal communications

  • E.g., buying a house

  • There are specialist communication units which do legal communications professionally, e.g., lawyers, judges


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Constitutional law

  • The state is the institutional framework of politics (information subsystem of the society)

  • The state is described by the constitution

  • Constitutional law is the information subsystem of the legal system: describes how law making / changing happens


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Identity violation – Legal system

  • Fault: wrong application of the laws – e.g. the judge decides that the money laundering CEO did not commit any crime

  • Error: lack of continuation of legally correct communications – e.g. fines are issued but not paid, and no consequence follows

  • Failure: revolution stops the application of laws


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Adaptation – Legal system

  • Incorrect judicial decision is corrected after appeal

  • Legislation leading to ineffective fines is changed to eliminate the issuing of such fines

  • New laws are introduced to deal with emerging important cases

  • New legislation is adopted after revolution


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Summary – 1

  • Political communications

  • Logic of power – identity of the political system

  • Political system: information subsystem of the society

  • Political institutions

  • Problems related to politics – adaptation


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Summary – 2

  • Laws – Parliament

  • Legal communications

  • Legal system: information subsystem of the political system

  • Constitution

  • Identity violation and adaptation in the legal system


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Q&A – 1

1. Is it true that everybody participates in the political system ?

2. Is it true that the collection of census data is an action of the political system ?

3. Is it true that a new higher education policy is an action of the political system ?

4. Is it true that elections are meaningless in a democratic political system ? What about in a one-party system ?


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Q&A – 2

5. Is it true that parties are professional institutions in the political system ?

6. Is it true that political institutions add implicit meaning to communications by sharpening the continuation distributions ?

7. Is it true that judges create actions of the legal system ? Do they create also perceptions of it ?


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