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Parenteral Medications Unit 14 Objectives Describe the syringes that are most frequently used for administering parenteral medications Describe the component parts of a syringe Explain how to prevent needlestick injuries in health care settings Describe the component parts of a needle

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Objectives

  • Describe the syringes that are most frequently used for administering parenteral medications

  • Describe the component parts of a syringe

  • Explain how to prevent needlestick injuries in health care settings

  • Describe the component parts of a needle

  • Dispose of used syringes correctly


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Parenteral Medications

  • Medications that are given with a syringe

  • Syringe-needle unit: used to inject a liquid substance into the body tissues, veins, arteries, or body canals

  • Syringe alone: used to perform an irrigation or to administer oral medications


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Parts of a Syringe

  • Component parts of a syringe include:

  • Barrel: part that holds medication and has graduated calibrations

  • Plunger: movable cylinder, inserts within the barrel

  • Flange: end of the barrel where the plunger is inserted

  • Tip: point of needle attachment


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Classification of Syriges

  • Syringes named according to their sizes and usages

  • Types:

  • Hypodermic: intramuscular and subcutaneous injections; venipuncture

  • Tuberculin: allergy testing, allergy injections

  • Insulin: administration of insulin


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Types of Syringes

  • Common types of syringes include:

  • Disposable

  • Nondisposable

  • Combination of the two types above


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Disposable Syringes

  • Sterilized, pre-packaged, ready to use

  • Sizes range from 1-60 cc

  • Labeling includes manufacturer’s name, type and size of the syringe, gauge, length of the needle, and reorder number


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Advantages of Disposable Syringes

  • Guaranteed to be sterile

  • Wide range of available sizes

  • Needle made of stainless steel

  • Syringe-needle unit saves time

  • Once used, the unit is discarded


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Nondisposable Syringes

  • Made of strengthened glass

  • Sizes range from 1-60 cc

  • Not often used for the administration of injections

  • Used in procedures including paracentesis, thoracentesis, and tracheotomy


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Combination Syringes

  • Cartridge-injection system: consists of a disposable cartridge-needle unit and a nondisposable cartridge-holder syringe

  • Easy to use

  • Convenient


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Needlestick Injuries

  • Needlestick safety and prevention act (1992): requires all employers to protect employees who may be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials resulting from needlestick or other percutaneous injuries


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Safety Device Designs

  • An estimated 384,000 skin puncture injuries occur in the U.S. hospitals and physician offices each year

  • Up to 88% of these injuries could have been prevented by using safety-engineered needles and other devices


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Safety Devices

  • Examples include:

  • Needleless connectors for IV delivery

  • Protected needle IV connectors

  • Self-retracting needles

  • Sliding needle shields

  • Retractable fingerstick and heelstick lancets


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Safety Practices

  • Avoid the use of needles when possible

  • Use devices with safety features

  • Avoid recapping needles

  • Plan safe handling and disposal before beginning any procedure

  • Dispose of used needles in a sharps box

  • Report all injuries immediately


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Needle Gauge

  • Range from 16-30

  • Lengths vary from 3/8 – 2 inches

  • Gauge is determined by the diameter of the lumen, or opening at the tip

  • The larger the gauge, the smaller the diameter of the lumen

  • Ex. A 30-gauge needle is much smaller than a 16-guage needle


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Parts of a Needle

  • Point: sharpened end of the needle

  • Bevel: flat, slanted surface

  • Lumen: oval-shaped opening

  • Shaft: hollow steel tube where the medication passes through

  • Hub: mounts onto the syringe

  • Hilt: point where shaft attaches to the hub


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Selecting Syringes

  • Two factors to consider include:

  • Type of medication ordered

    • Thick medications use 21-16 G

    • Subcutaneous injections should not exceed 2 cc

    • Intramuscular injections should not exceed 3 cc

  • Age/size of the patient


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