Overview of Chemistry
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Overview of Chemistry. What’s the center or target?. Building Blocks. Putting them together. Disassembling them. Rearranging them. Chemical Reactions. Synthesis (combination). Medicine Flavorings Plastics High energy fuels. O. H. C. C. H. O. H. H. SYNTHESIS OF FLAVORINGS.

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What’s the center or target?

Building Blocks

Putting them together

Disassembling them

Rearranging them



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Synthesis (combination)

  • Medicine

  • Flavorings

  • Plastics

  • High energy fuels


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O

H

C

C

H

O

H

H

SYNTHESIS OF FLAVORINGS

Acetic acid splits into acetate (C2H3O2)- and H+

O

O

-

C

O

C

-

-

H3C OH

-


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O||

HO

H

H

H

O

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

SYNTHESIS OF FLAVORINGS

O

H

O

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

C

O

C

C

C

C

O

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

O||

O||

CH3-CH2-CH2-OH + CH3C-OH  H2O + CH3CH2CH2-O-CCH3

Propyl alcohol + acetic acid (vinegar)

O||

OH

H2O +

+

O


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O||

O||

HO

HO

O||

O||

O

O

O||

O||

O

OH

HO

+

Octanol (or gasoline>alcohol) +acetic acid water + Octyl acetate (orange flavor)

H2O +

+

OH

Benzyl alcohol (globs in lava lamps) + acetic acid  water + Benzyl acetate

H2O +

+

OH

Isopentenyl alcohol + acetic acid  water + Isopentenyl acetate (Juicy-Fruit)


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O||

O||

O

H2O +

+

HO

OH

Ethanol (liquor) + butyric acid (rancid butter)  water + Ethyl butyrate (Apple flavor)

O||

O||

H2O +

HO

O

+

OH

HO

Amyl alcohol (oil of potato spirit) + salicylic acid (wart remover)  water +Amyl salicylate


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amyl (unmilled grain) (5 carbon) (butyric acid= rancid butter)

ALCOHOL ACID ESTER FRAGRANCE

1 n-amyl alcohol butyric acid apricot

2 n-amyl alcohol salicylic acid pineapple

3 n-amyl alcohol glacial acetic acid banana

4 n-octyl alcohol glacial acetic acid fruity

5 methyl alcohol salicylic acid wintergreen

6 ethyl alcohol butyric acid apple

7 ethyl alcohol glacial acetic acid fruity

RCOOH + HOR  RCOOR' + H2Oorganic acid + alcohol ester + water

H+


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Decomposition butter)

  • Speed up decomposition

    • Toxic waste

    • Waste

    • Fats

    • Explosives

  • Slow down decomposition

    • Anti-rust

    • Anti-aging


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Anything into Oil butter)Technological savvy could turn 600 million tons of turkey guts and other waste into 4 billion barrels of light Texas crude each year

depolymerization


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AB butter) A + B

(NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 + 4H2O + Cr2O3

(NH4)2Cr2O7 N2 + 4H2O + Cr2O3


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Single replacement butter)

A + BC B + AC

  • Design of batteries

3Zn + 2Cu3PO4 6Cu + Zn3(PO4)2


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Each potato generates about 0.5 volts and 0.2 milliamps. The entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.


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Single replacement entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

A + BC B + AC

  • Sacrificial corrosion

Zn + FeCl2 Fe + ZnCl2


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Protects all metals below it entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

These corrosion products occupy from 2 to 14 times the volume of the original steel, creating an expansive force that is sufficient to cause the concrete to crack.

Zinc corrodes so iron or aluminum will not corrode.


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Double replacement entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

AB + CD AD + CB

  • Purification (barium is poisonous)

    • BaCl2 + MgSO4 BaSO4 + MgCl2

    • Ba2+(aq)+2Cl-(aq)+Mg2+(aq)+SO42-(aq)BaSO4(s)+Mg2+(aq)+2Cl-(aq)


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Double replacement entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

AB + CD AD + CB

Ag + Mg

  • Extraction

    • (Nitric acid)  AgNO3(aq) + Mg(NO3)2(aq)

  • AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)


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Double replacement entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

AB + CD AD + CB

  • Neutralizing corrosives

    • NaOH + CH3COOH NaC2H3O2 +HOH


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Double replacement entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.

AB + CD AD + CB

  • Neutralizing corrosives

    • 2HCl + Na2CO3 2NaCl + H2CO3

    • H2CO3 H2O + CO2(g)

HCl


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Oxidation entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps. (combustion)[loss of electrons]

  • Improve oxidation

    • Cleaner burning fuels

    • Better fireworks

    • Antiseptic

    • Hyperbaric chambers

  • Resist oxidation

    • Rust proofing

    • Antioxidants


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Chemical Reactions entire 500 lb battery generated around 5 volts and 4 milliamps.



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Double replacement. 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

3NaOH + Al(NO3)3 3NaNO3 + Al(OH)3


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Children Cycle Company 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.


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Wheels only come in pairs 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Promote our Super Durable tires

Biggest cost will be in the tires


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Recall slow moving inventory 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.and transfer tires to fast moving inventory


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Manufacture Cars 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Car Body = Cb Pair of Wheels = W2

Cb + W2 CbW4

How many orders of each do we make?

Cb + 2W2 CbW4


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We need Fire extinguisher Fluid 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Carbon~Car body Chlorine~Pair wheels

C + Cl2 CCl4

Carbon tetrachloride

How many orders of each do we make?

C + 2Cl2 CCl4

Cl

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

Cl


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Manufacture Tricycles 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Trike Body = Tb Pair of Wheels = W2

Tb + W2 TbW3

How many orders of each do we make?

2Tb + 3W2 2TbW3


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We need anti-perspirant (Drysol) 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Aluminum~Tricycle body Chlorine~Pair wheels

Al + Cl2 AlCl3

How many orders of each do we make?

2Al + 3Cl2 2AlCl3

Cl

Al

Cl

Cl


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Cars aren't selling. We need more bicycles. 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Car body = Cb Pair of Wheels = W2Bicycle body = Bb

bike bodies + cars  bicycles + car bodies

Bb + CbW4 BbW2 + Cb

2 bike bodies + 1 car  2 bicycles + 1 car body

2Bb + CbW4 2BbW2 + Cb


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Cl 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Ca

C

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Fire extinguishers not selling. We need de-icers

Carbon~Car body Chlorine~pair of wheelsCalcium~bicycle body

Calcium + carbon tetrachloride  Calcium chloride + carbon

Ca + CCl4 CaCl2 + C

2Ca + CCl4 2CaCl2 + C


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Tricycles aren't selling. We need more bicycles. 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Trike Body = Tb Pair of Wheels = W2Bicycle body = Bb

Tricycles + bike bodies  bicycles + trike bodies

TbW3 + Bb  BbW2 + Tb

2 tricycles + 3 bike bodies  3 bicycles + 2 trike bodies

2TbW3 + 3Bb  3BbW2 + 2Tb


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Cl 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Al

Cl

Cl

Anti-perspirants not selling, we need de-icers

Aluminum~Tricycle body Chlorine~Pair wheelsCalcium~bicycle body

AlCl3 + Ca  CaCl2 + Al

2AlCl3 + 3Ca  3CaCl2 + 2Al


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Tricycles aren't selling. We need more wagons. 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Trike Body = Tb Pair of Wheels = W2Wagon body = Wb

Wagon bodies + Tricycles  Wagons + trike bodies

Wb + TbW3 WbW4 + Tb

3 Wagon bodies + 4 Tricycles  3 Wagons + 4 trike bodies

3Wb + 4TbW3 3WbW4 + 4Tb


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Cl 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 1:3, and so forth.

Al

Cl

Cl

Anti-perspirants are selling, Intel wants silicon tetrachloride

Aluminum~Tricycle body Chlorine~Pair wheelsSilicon~Wagon Body

Si + AlCl3 SiCl4 + Al

3Si + 4AlCl3 3SiCl4 + 4Al

Cl

Si

Cl

Cl

Cl


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