Myers psychology 7th ed
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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed). Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers. The Need for Psychological Science.

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Myers psychology 7th ed

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY(7th Ed)

Chapter 1

Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

James A. McCubbin, PhD

Clemson University

Worth Publishers


The need for psychological science

The Need for Psychological Science

Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses


The need for psychological science1

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Hindsight Bias

    • we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it

    • the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon

  • Overconfidence

    • we tend to think we know more than we do


The need for psychological science2

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Critical Thinking

    • thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

      • examines assumptions

      • discerns hidden values

      • evaluates evidence

The Amazing Randi--Skeptic


The need for psychological science3

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Theory

    • an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

  • Hypothesis

    • a testable prediction

    • often implied by a theory


The need for psychological science4

The Need for Psychological Science


The need for psychological science5

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Operational Definition

    • a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables

    • Example-

      • intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures


The need for psychological science6

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Replication

    • repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances

    • usually with different participants in different situations


Description

Description

Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation


Description1

Description

Case Study

  • Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all

Is language uniquely human?


Description2

Description

  • Survey

    • technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people

    • usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people

  • Random Sample

    • a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion


Description3

Description

  • False Consensus Effect

    • tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

  • Population

    • all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study


Description4

Description


Description5

Description

  • If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them


Description6

Description

  • Naturalistic Observation

    • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation


Correlation

Correlation

  • Correlation Coefficient

    • a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

Indicates direction

of relationship

(positive or negative)

Correlation

coefficient

r = +.37

Indicates strength

of relationship

(0.00 to 1.00)


Correlation1

Correlation

  • Scatterplot

    • a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

    • the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship

    • the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

      • little scatter indicates high correlation

    • also called a scattergram or scatter diagram


Correlation2

Perfect positive

correlation (+1.00)

No relationship (0.00)

Perfect negative

correlation (-1.00)

Correlation

Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations


Correlation3

Height and Temperament of 20 Men

Height in

Inches

Height in

Inches

Temperament

Temperament

Subject

Subject

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

80

63

61

79

74

69

62

75

77

60

75

66

60

90

60

42

42

60

81

39

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

64

76

71

66

73

70

63

71

68

70

48

69

72

57

63

75

30

57

84

39

Correlation


Correlation4

95

90

85

80

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

Temperament

scores

Height in inches

Correlation

Scatterplot of Height and Temperament

55 60 65 70 75 80 85


Correlation5

Correlation

Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships

could cause

(1)

Low self-esteem

Depression

or

(2)

Depression

could cause

Low self-esteem

or

Low self-esteem

(3)

Distressing events

or biological

predisposition

could cause

and

Depression


Illusory correlation

Conceive

Do not conceive

confirming

evidence

disconfirming

evidence

Adopt

disconfirming

evidence

confirming

evidence

Do not

adopt

Illusory Correlation

  • Illusory Correlation

    • the perception of a relationship where none exists


Two random sequences

Two Random Sequences

  • Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.


Experimentation

Experimentation

  • Experiment

    • an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)

    • by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors


Experimentation1

Experimentation

  • Placebo

    • an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent

  • Double-blind Procedure

    • both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

    • commonly used in drug-evaluation studies


Experimentation2

Experimentation

  • Experimental Condition

    • the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

  • Control Condition

    • the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment

    • serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment


Experimentation3

Experimentation

  • Random Assignment

    • assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance

    • minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups


Experimentation4

Experimentation

  • Independent Variable

    • the experimental factor that is manipulated

    • the variable whose effect is being studied

  • Dependent Variable

    • the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

    • in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process


Experimentation5

Experimentation


Research strategies

Subliminal tape content

Self-esteem

Memory

Tape label

Self-esteem

Memory

Research Strategies

  • Design of the subliminal tapes experiment


Statistical reasoning

100%

99

98

97

96

95

Percentage

still functioning

after 10 years

Our Brand Brand Brand

Brand X Y Z

Brand of truck

Statistical Reasoning


Statistical reasoning1

100%

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage

still functioning

after 10 years

Our Brand Brand Brand

Brand X Y Z

Brand of truck

Statistical Reasoning


Statistical reasoning2

Statistical Reasoning

  • Mode

    • the most frequently occurring score in a distribution

  • Mean

    • the arithmetic average of a distribution

    • obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

  • Median

    • the middle score in a distribution

    • half the scores are above it and half are below it


Statistical reasoning3

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

90

475

710

70

Mode Median Mean

One Family

Income per family in thousands of dollars

Statistical Reasoning

A Skewed Distribution


Statistical reasoning4

Statistical Reasoning

  • Range

    • the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

  • Standard Deviation

    • a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean

  • Statistical Significance

    • a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance


Frequently asked questions about psychology

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?


Frequently asked questions about psychology1

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Does behavior depend on ones culture?

  • Culture--the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next


Frequently asked questions about psychology2

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Does behavior vary with gender?


Frequently asked questions about psychology3

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Why do psychologists study animals?

Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

Is it ethical to experiment on people?


Frequently asked questions about psychology4

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Is psychology free of value judgments?


Frequently asked questions about psychology5

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Is psychology potentially dangerous?


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