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Module 31 Assessing Intelligence Worth Publishers Assessing Intelligence One-Minute Intelligence Test Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet – French Psychologist developed intelligence test when schools needed a way to objectively identify students with special needs

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Module 31

Assessing Intelligence

Worth Publishers


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Assessing Intelligence

One-Minute Intelligence Test


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Alfred Binet– French Psychologist

    • developed intelligence test when schools needed a way to objectively identify students with special needs

    • believed that all children follow same path of development, some develop more rapidly


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Mental Age

    • a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet

    • chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

    • child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Stanford-Binet

    • the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test

      • revised by Terman at Stanford University

        • extended range to include adults

        • Developed test to evaluate immigrants and WWI army recruits – cultural bias


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

    • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100

      • IQ = (ma/ca x 100)

    • on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100


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Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • If mental and chronological age are the same, IQ = 100.

  • Most current intellectual tests, no longer measure an IQ.

  • Original formula works for children, not for adults.

  • Today’s intellectual tests compare mental ability score based on test-taker’s performance relative to the average performance of others that are the same age.

  • 2/3 of all people score between 85-115.


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Aptitude Test

    • a test designed to predict a person’s future performance (ex. SAT)

    • aptitude is the capacity to learn

  • Achievement Test

    • a test designed to assess what a person has learned (ex. course exam)


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

    • most widely used intelligence test

    • Subtests – (11)

      • verbal

      • performance (nonverbal)


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VERBAL

PERFORMANCE

Picture Completion

Picture Arrangement

Block Design

Object Assembly

Digit-Symbol Substitution

General Information

Similarities

Arithmetic Reasoning

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Digit Span

From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977

Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS


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Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS

Subtest of the WAIS-R -

Measures abilities to see similarities

(Transparency/Analogies)


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Assessing Intelligence

  • To be widely accepted, intelligence tests have to be –

    • Standardized

    • Reliable

    • Valid

    • (Stanford-Binet, Wechsler tests met all three.)


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Basis for comparing your score to others’ performance –

    • Give test to a representative group of people.

    • When people take test their scores are compared to the sample in #1.


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Standardization

    • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”

  • Normal Curve

    • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

    • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes


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The Normal Curve (Transparency)


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Getting Smarter?Flynn Effect


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Flynn Effect

  • Greater test sophistication?

  • Better nutrition?

  • More education?

  • More stimulation in the environment?

  • Less childhood disease?

  • Smaller families and more parental involvement?


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Reliability

    • the extent to which a test yields consistent results

    • assessed by consistency of scores on:

      • two halves of the test – split test – odd/even

      • alternate forms of the test

      • retesting

  • Validity

    • the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to


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Assessing Intelligence

Standardized Test

Chitlings Test

Morris Shoe Size Test –

  • Are these tests – standardized, reliable, valid?


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Content Validity

    • the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

      • driving test that samples driving tasks

  • Criterion

    • behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict

    • the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity


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Assessing Intelligence

  • Predictive Validity

    • success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

    • assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

    • also called criterion-related validity


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10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Greater correlation

over broad range

of body weights

Football linemen’s

success

Little corre-

lation within

restricted

range

180 250 290

Body weight in pounds

Assessing Intelligence

  • As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes


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The Dynamics of Intelligence

  • Mental Retardation

    • a condition of limited mental ability

    • indicated by an intelligence score below 70

    • produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life

    • varies from mild to profound

  • Down Syndrome

    • retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup


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The Dynamics of Intelligence(Transparency)


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