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Making the Most of Read Aloud Time: How to Boost Vocabulary and Comprehension Through Text-Based Discourse . Presented by : Lana E. Santoro, Ph.D. Pacific Institutes for Research Alexandria, VA Oregon Reading First Red Lion Hotel Portland Convention Center October 16-17, 2008.

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Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Making the Most of Read Aloud Time:How to Boost Vocabulary and Comprehension Through Text-Based Discourse

Presented by:

Lana E. Santoro, Ph.D.

Pacific Institutes for Research

Alexandria, VA

Oregon Reading First

Red Lion Hotel Portland Convention Center

October 16-17, 2008


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Co-Principal Investigators:

Scott Baker, Ph.D.

Lana Edwards Santoro, Ph.D.

David Chard, Ph.D.

Hank Fien, Ph.D.

Funded by the U.S. Department of EducationInstitute for Education Sciences (CFDA No. 84.305)


What is comprehension

What is Comprehension?

  • Comprehensionis the complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract or construct meaning (National Reading Panel, 2000).

    Reading comprehension is not an automatic or passive process, but is highly purposeful and interactive – good readers apply a variety of strategies to process text (Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000).


Building comprehension through discussion

Building Comprehension Through Discussion. . .

The Comprehension Conversation

(Santoro, Baker, Chard, & Howard, 2007)


What the research says about comprehension

What the Research Says About Comprehension

Strategic reading

A reader’s awareness of what strategies are necessary to gain meaning from text and the ability to self-regulate the use of those strategies.

Metacognition:

The active monitoring of understanding.

“Thinking about thinking.”

(Coyne, Kame’enui, & Chard, 2003)


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Two types of written text:

Narrative text tells a story and usually follows a familiar structure. Narrative text may be the invention of an author, the reporting of factual events, or the retelling of a tale from oral tradition.

Expository textprovides an explanation of facts and concepts. Its main purpose is to inform, persuade, or explain.


Comprehension strategies supported by research

Comprehension Strategies Supported by Research

Reader Strategies:

  • Previewing/Predicting

  • Making connections

  • Monitoring and Clarifying

  • Question generation

  • Summarization

    Teacher Strategies:

  • Question asking/answering

  • Cooperative learning

  • Graphic/semantic organizers/story maps

National Reading Panel (2000)


Benefits from reading aloud

Benefits from Reading Aloud

  • Background knowledge

  • Vocabulary

  • Rich language patterns

  • Text structure

  • Familiarity with the reading process

(Dickinson, Smith, 1994; Fisher, Flood, Lapp, & Frey, 2004; Hickman, Pollard-Durodola, Vaughn, 2004; Justice & Ezell, 2002; Neuman, 1996; Robbins & Ehri, 1994; Santoro, Chard, Baker, & Howard, 2008).


Reading styles dickinson smith 1994

Reading Styles (Dickinson & Smith, 1994)

  • Co-constructive

    • Extensive talk during reading, very little before or after

  • Didactic-interactional

    • Limited talk

    • Immediate recall or task organization

  • Performance orientated

    • Talk before and after

    • Any talk during reading was analytic: prediction, vocabulary, personal connectedness, discussion of characters


Performance orientated approach

Performance OrientatedApproach

  • Reading aloud does not come naturally for many: Practice

  • Use expression, change tone of voice to match the situation in the story.

  • Adjust your pace with the story.

  • Don’t read too fast.

  • Preview each book.

  • Plan read aloud time carefully.


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

The Read Aloud Project


Project purpose

Project Purpose

  • Feature an approach to read alouds that anchors children’s understanding of stories in narrative and informational text structure and strategic vocabulary instruction.

  • Facilitate dialogic interactions between the teacher and students.

  • Promote increased comprehension of text and target vocabulary use.


Instructional objectives

Instructional Objectives

Students will learn about and practice …

  • Reading as a thinking activity

  • Preparing to read by identifying text “type” before reading (i.e., why and how to identify narrative or information)

  • Using a consistent framework--based on text type--to inform what to do/attend to before, during, and after reading (i.e., Story Grammar Elements or KWL)

  • Monitoring understanding of text (and what to do if text/vocabulary is not clear)

  • Using text features in information texts


Instructional objectives cont

Instructional Objectives (cont)

  • Recognizing and clarifying important details

  • Making connections (i.e., text-self; text-text; text-world) with what is read

  • Using higher level comprehension skills (e.g., prediction, inference)

  • “Retelling” stories/summarizing information

  • “Discussing” texts read (individually; in “Book Clubs”)

  • Using target vocabulary, especially in discussions about text


Results

PROXIMAL

*Narrative retell: .38 ES

Narrative Comprehension Total

*Expository retell: .39 ES

Expository Comprehension Total

Content Vocabulary (p = .07)

DISTAL

*Gates Reading Comprehension: .36 ES

Gates Listening Comprehension

Told Oral Language

Results


Vocabulary outcomes by condition

Vocabulary Outcomes by Condition


Example responses from depth of word knowledge we couldn t have made these up

Example responses from Depth of Word Knowledge:We couldn’t have made these up…

  • S A fossil is something when a dinosaur steps on something and they die and a person picks it, the thing up and they see the footprint inside so they put, it in a museum.

  • E In where?

  • S A museum.

  • E Now use the word fossil in a sentence.

  • S I can't, I don't know anything about it in a sentence.

  • E What does curious mean?

  • S It means you don't know.

  • E Can you say more on that?

  • S What's a hundred plus a hundred? That's curious. What's a hundred plus a hundred? Hundred plus three hundred is what? I don't know.

  • E Now use curious in a sentence.

  • S OK. What's a thousand plus two? {verbal sound for i don't know}

  • E What does yank mean?

  • S Like this {sound of chair moving}

  • E Now use the word nectar in a sentence.

  • S I'm having nectar. Is that really a sentence?

  • E What does proud mean?

  • S Happy like you just swam like a hundred miles.

  • E Now use chrysalis in a sentence.

  • S I saw a beautiful chrysalis then I watched it for days and a beautiful butterfly came out. You write fast.

  • E Not fast enough.


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

  • E OK, now use dart in a sentence.

  • S Hey mom can I play darts? Sure. Bonzai! Don't put that in. I just {laughs} I just wanted to say that.

  • E OK, what's a paleontologist?

  • S Paleontologist? I don't know. Oh yes I do. Erase that please. A paleontologist is the person who builds the fossils and they're like a scientist… Want a sentence?

  • E Just a minute. OK, now use paleontologist in a sentence.

  • S Hey mom a paleontologist is at my door. Can I answer and let him in to do some science?

  • E What is a glossary?

  • S I don't know.

  • E Can you use it in a sentence?

  • S Hey mom there's a glossary. What is a glossary anyway?

  • E What is a paleontologist?

  • S Someone who studies fossils… I’ve been a paleontologist my whole life…. You’re going to have to write fast to keep up with me.

  • E What does polite mean?

  • S Polite means you're being respectful and you're being goody good.

  • E And now use polite in a sentence.

  • S That's easy. Watch this Um. I am polite in school.

  • S Polite is when you ask somebody nicely, like, may I please have my glasses back?

  • E Now use polite in a sentence.

  • S Please um give me my glasses back

  • E What's a paleontologist?

  • S I have no idea.

  • E Now use paleontologist in a sentence.

  • S I still have no idea.


Vocabulary outcome differences by condition and by student risk profile

Vocabulary Outcome Differences by Condition and by Student Risk Profile


Narrative retell differences by condition

Narrative Retell Differences by Condition


Pre test narrative retell

Pre-test Narrative Retell

  • S (Um) I forgot the story.

  • E That's okay.

  • E Once upon a time

  • S Once upon a time there was a little boy.

  • S (um) and a big package.

  • S And the little boy opened the package.

  • S and (um) he saw that it was a baby frog.

  • S and the big frog didn't like the little new frog.

  • S (And)>

  • E The baby frog didn't like that there was a baby frog?

  • S The big frog didn't like there was a baby frog.

  • S (and the)>

  • -0:01:24

  • E Can you tell me more?

  • -0:01:26

  • S I forgot.

  • -0:01:30

  • E There was a big frog and he didn't like the baby frog.

  • S (Um he and) the little boy (showed) put the baby frog down (for, um, to, um) to visit (the frog) the big frog.

  • S and the big frog did not like the baby frog anymore.

  • S (and um)>

Number of Plot Episodes Identified: 4 Plot Episodes 2 Major Components


Post test narrative retell

Post-test Narrative Retell

s this is the story about "onefrogtoomany".

  • s and (um) a little boy got a package.

  • s and (um) he opened it.

  • s and then he saw there was a baby frog inside.

  • s and then (he put um) he was happy he had a baby frog.

  • s but (the) he already had a big frog already.

  • s and the big frog was jealous of him.

  • s and (um) then he put the baby frog down next to the big frog.

  • s (and then he he um he and then the okay) and then the big frog (um) he said hello in a mean voice.

  • s and then (um) he bent down and bit the baby frog on the leg.

  • s and then they went out.

  • s he sent his pets out to play.

  • s and he the frogs were on riding the turtle.

  • s (and the) and the big frog didn't like sharing the ride.

  • s after a while he kicked the baby frog off.

  • s and then he left the baby frog there in the dirt or mud.

  • s and (um he) then they went on a raft.

  • s well they came to the lake.

  • s and then they went on a raft.

  • s and he did something.

  • s the frog did something.

  • s I can't remember.

  • s (and) and the baby frog got kicked off the>

  • s and by being mean he told him to go home, the frog.

  • s but well the frog the big frog had to go home.

  • s but he didn't do it as he was told.

  • s and (um) the baby frog got pushed.

  • s (the the um okay) the big frog jumped onto the raft.

  • s and then he kicked the baby frog off.

  • s and (then they they after okay) then one of the pets told what happened.

  • s (and then the said) and then the boy said oh no.

  • s and then they searched under wooly pads, logs, in logs.

  • s (and) but they couldn't find the baby frog.

  • s so they went home all feeling sad.

  • s even the big frog felt sorry.

  • s and (um) then they went home.

  • s and the little boy started to cry.

  • s but then they heard a s sound.

  • s and it was sounding like a baby frog.

  • s {big sigh} then the baby frog {big sigh} jumped in joining them.

  • s (and then) {big sigh} and then he (um) landed on the big frog's head.

  • s and then the big frog promised not to hurt the baby frog again.

  • s and that was all.

  • -

Number of Plot Episodes Identified: 26 Plot Episodes 6 Major Components


Expository retell differences by condition

Expository Retell Differences by Condition


Pre test expository retell

Pre-test Expository Retell

  • S They eat fish.

  • S They eat people and dolphins and other kinds of whales too.

  • - 0:00:25

  • E (Uhhuh).

  • - 0:00:27

  • S I think that's all I know.

  • - 0:00:32

  • E Tell me more about killer whales.

  • - 0:00:34

  • S I don't know anymore.

  • - 0:00:36

  • E (No more)?

  • - 0:00:42

Number of Concepts Identified: 2 Concepts 0 Spontaneous Vocabulary Use


Post test expository retell

Post-test Expository Retell

  • -0:00:00

  • S Uh!

  • S (um) they eat (dolphi*) fish penguins dolphins and other kinds of whales.

  • S and when they're born they're almost four hundred pounds.

  • S the male I don't know how long the dorsal fin is.

  • S but the female has a shorter dorsal fin than the male.

  • S it helps them steer so they can get around.

  • S (and when a baby um it weighs) when a baby whale grows up it weighs over a thousand pounds.

  • S (and mhm) and I forgot.

  • -0:01:45

  • E when they grow up they weigh over a thousand pounds?

  • E tell me more about killer whales.

  • -0:02:04

  • S they're born under water above the surface.

  • S when they get teeth they get to eat fish.

  • S when they're born they're being nursed by their mother.

  • S (um um) I forgot.

  • -0:02:41

  • E they're nursed by their mothers.

  • E tell me more.

  • -0:02:50

  • S (mhm) they can swim faster than we can run.

  • S and I think it's twenty four miles per hour.

  • S I don't think so.

  • S but if it's forty two miles per hour that's how old my mom is (mhm).

  • -0:04:12

  • E they swim twenty four miles an hour.

  • -0:04:14

  • S and (um) they don't have gills like fish.

  • S they don't breathe under water.

  • S they have a blowhole so they can breathe under water.

  • S s_s {door slam and lady's laughter drown out student voice}.

  • S and (um) they can stay under water for ten minutes (or more) or longer (I mean).

  • S and that's all I learned.

  • -0:05:04

  • E (alright).

  • -0:05:06

  • S Oh why did you have to {breaks off}^

Number of Concepts Identified: 12 Concepts 3 Spontaneous Vocabulary Use


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Read Aloud Curriculum Overview


Unit and lesson overview

Unit and Lesson Overview

  • 9 Units (+ a pre Unit)

    • 20 books total (2 books per unit)

  • 7 Lessons in each Unit (2 lessons in pre Unit)

    • 3 lessons with information text

    • 4 lessons with narrative text

  • 7 Lessons implemented across 2 weeks

  • Lessons are designed to take about 20 to 30-minutes


Unit and lesson overview1

Unit and Lesson Overview

  • Curriculum is intended to allow for flexibility of implementation

    • Project Calendar Designed Around the 9 Science/Animal Units

  • Extension activities are also recommended to enhance the curriculum

  • Units/Lessons are thematic


Science units

Science Units

  • Unit 1: MAMMALS

    • Unit 2: Bats

    • Unit 3: Elephants

  • * Two weeks per unit (7 lessons)

  • * 1 Information text and 1 Narrative text per unit


Science units1

Science Units

  • Unit 4: REPTILES

    • Unit 5: Crocodiles

    • Unit 6: Sea Turtles

  • * Two weeks per unit (7 lessons)

  • * 1 Information text and 1 Narrative text per unit


Science units2

Science Units

  • Unit 7: INSECTS

    • Unit 8: Ladybugs

    • Unit 9: Butterflies

  • * Two weeks per unit (7 lessons)

  • * 1 Information text and 1 Narrative text per unit


Instructional time includes

Instructional time includes. . .

  • 10-15 minutes of the teacher’s read aloud and strategic use of questions and prompts.

  • 5-7 minutes of student partner discussion or “Book Clubs.”


Lessons

Lessons

  • ALL lessons include before, during, and after components

  • ALL lessons follow a “repeated reading” model


Before

Before

  • Identifying the purpose for reading

    • Information or Storybook

  • Previewing

    • Title, author, illustrator

  • Predicting/Priming

  • Defining Critical Vocabulary (e.g. if vocabulary word is part of book title)


During

During

  • Using consistent framework (e.g., story elements, info. headings, info. text focus questions)

  • Question-asking strategies

  • Making connections (Text to text, text to self, text to world)

  • Making inferences

  • Self-monitoring: What do you do when you don’t understand something?

  • Vocabulary


After

After

  • Retell of storybooks

  • Retell of information text (review with KWL chart and tell with information retell sheet)

  • Vocabulary Introduction, Review and Extension Activities


Organizing frameworks

Organizing Frameworks

Information Texts

  • KWL:

    • What do we think we know about the topic?

    • What do we want to know about the topic?

    • What have we learned about the topic?

      Narrative Texts

  • Story Elements/Personal Response

    • Who is the story about?

      Main Character/Character Clues and/or Setting

    • What happened first/next/end?

    • Did I like/not like the story? Why?


Repeated reading structure

“Repeated Reading” Structure

Information Text:

  • Lesson 1:

  • Lesson 2:

  • Lesson 3:


Repeated reading format information text

“Repeated Reading” Format: Information Text

Lesson1:

Prepare to read (preview; id purpose; K & W of KWL Chart)

Read 200-300 words (often selected portions of text)

Review L of KWL Chart; Start retell practice

Lesson 2:

Review info/vocab covered in Lesson 1 (with book/chart)

Read another 200-300 words

Review L of KWL Chart; Continue retell practice

Lesson 3:

Review info/vocab covered in Lessons 1 & 2 (w book/chart)

Read another 200-300 words

Review L of KWL Chart; Do complete retell


Repeated reading structure1

“Repeated Reading” Structure

Narrative Text:

  • Lesson 4:

  • Lesson 5:

  • Lesson 6:

  • Lesson 7:


Repeated reading format narrative text type

“Repeated Reading” Format:Narrative Text Type

Lesson4:

Prepare to read (preview/id purpose/prime)

Read entire story (minimal stops)

Start retell practice (personal response)

Vocabulary introduction

Lessons 5 & 6:

Review vocabulary

“Discuss” story using retell sheet

Retell practice

Lesson 7:

Review vocabulary

Re-read entire story

Do a complete retell


How the curriculum is scaffolded

How the Curriculum is “Scaffolded”

  • Pre-Unit

    • Teach students about Read Aloud routines and materials

  • Units 1 – 3

    • Teacher demonstrates and models strategies

    • More Think Alouds are used

    • Explicit instructional support

  • Units 4 – 6

    • Teacher guides and facilitates

  • Units 7 – 9

    • Teacher elicits

    • Increased use of inferential questions


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

  • Model

  • Lead/Guide

    • Work collaboratively with students and the strategy, giving and taking as much as necessary to create meaning

    • Eventually, students take on more and more responsibility

  • Students use strategies independently

(Pardo, 2004)


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Selecting Books for Read Alouds


Book selection guidelines

Book Selection Guidelines

  • Topics

    • High interest to young children (e.g., animals)

    • Ability to compare and contrast topics across books

    • Connected to district, school, and curricular themes

    • Connected to state and district standards

  • Target Audience

    • Grade level students

    • Interests of students

    • Length of books


Book selection guidelines1

Book Selection Guidelines

  • Diversity and Multicultural Connections

    • Male and female characters

    • Different cultures and ethnicity groups represented

    • Different settings and geographical locations

  • Text Coherence

    • Clear story structure

    • Expository information presented with clarity and accuracy

  • Text-to-Text Author and Illustrator Connections

    • Some books written by the same author

    • Some books illustrated by the same author


What about colorful and engaging illustrations

What about colorful and engaging illustrations?

  • Depends on the purpose of your read aloud.

    • Building vocabulary, language, and comprehension?

      • Read first. Then show pictures.

      • Showing pictures after students have listened to a text excerpt allows them to focus on the text’s language and its meaning without the influence of pictures.


Pairing story and information texts

Pairing Story and Information Texts

  • Using content from information text to expand understanding of story text

  • Making text-to-text connections

  • Making thematic connections

  • Enhancing vocabulary

  • Building content redundancy and background knowledge


Thinking about the fourth grade slump

Thinking about the “Fourth Grade Slump”

  • Reading comprehension requires knowledge – of words and the world (Hirsch, 2003)

    • Breadth of vocabulary is essential

    • Domain knowledge is important

      • Enables readers to make sense of word combinations and choose among multiple possible word meanings

    • Word knowledge is essential because every text takes for granted the readers’ familiarity with a whole range of unspoken and unwritten facts about the cultural and natural worlds


How much information text is in primary grade classrooms

How Much Information Text is in Primary Grade Classrooms?

  • Observed first grade classrooms for 1-year in the greater Boston metropolitan area (Duke, 2000)

  • Results indicated:

    • Classes spent an average of 3.6 minutes per day with informational text

    • Classrooms in low SES districts spent even less (1.4 minutes per day)

  • Scarcity of informational text in primary grade classrooms and materials (Kamberelis, 1998; Moss & Newton, 1998; Yopp & Yopp, 2000)


Why include more informational text in primary classrooms

Why Include More Informational Text in Primary Classrooms?

  • Informational text is key to success in later schooling.

    • “Reading to learn” (Chall, 1983)

  • Informational text is ubiquitous in society

    • Adults read a great deal of nonfiction (e.g., Venesky, 1982; Smith, 2000).

    • 96% of text on the World Wide Web is expository (Kamil & Lane, 1998).

  • Informational text is preferred reading material for some children

    • Students have different reading preferences!

    • Including more informational text in classrooms may improve attitudes toward reading and even serve as a catalyst for overall literacy development (Caswell & Duke, 1998).


Why include more informational text in primary classrooms1

Why Include More Informational Text in Primary Classrooms?

  • Informational text often addresses children’s interests and questions.

    • When the text’s topic is of particular interest to that child, his or her reading is likely to improve (Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992).

    • Therefore, higher levels of reading achievement and motivation (e.g., Guthrie et al., 1996).

  • Informational text builds knowledge of the natural and social word.

    • Reading and listening to informational text can develop children’s knowledge of the world (e.g., Anderson & Guthrie, 1999: Duke & Kays, 1998)

  • Informational text helps build vocabulary and other kinds of literacy knowledge.

    • Parents and teachers tend more to vocabulary and concepts when reading aloud informational text than narrative text (Mason, Peterman, Powell, & Kerr, 1989; Pellegrini, Perlmutter, Galda, & Brody, 1990)/


Activity

Activity

  • Think about the books you use for read alouds,

    • Do your books meet some of the book selection guidelines?

    • What other guidelines do you use to select books for read alouds?

    • Pick one book or core reading program text excerpt. What other books or readings could you use to reinforce this read aloud? (e.g., think about pairing information and story text, adding another thematic source, etc.)


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Planning Before, During, and After Reading Components


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

General Framework for Teaching Comprehension

Before Reading

During Reading

AfterReading

  • Set objectives for instruction

  • Identify and preteach difficult to read words

  • Prime students’ background knowledge

  • Chunk text

  • Stop periodically to ask students questions

  • Map text structure

  • Model ongoing comprehension monitoring

  • Strategic integration of comprehension instruction

  • Planned review

  • Assessment of students’ understanding


Before reading

Before Reading

  • Identifying the purpose for reading

    • Informational text or story

  • Previewing

    • title, author, illustrator

  • Strategic predicting/priming background knowledge

  • Defining critical vocabulary


During reading

During Reading

  • Using consistent framework (e.g., story elements, info. headings, info. text focus questions)

  • Question-asking strategies

    • Literal

    • Organizational

    • Inferential

  • Making connections (Text to text, text to self, text to world)

  • Active thinking (Predict-Prove; Where’s the Evidence?)

  • Identifying main ideas

  • Self-monitoring (What do you do when you don’t understand something?)

  • Vocabulary


After reading

After Reading

  • Structured Retelling (Fuchs et al., 1994)

    • Retell of storybooks

    • Retell of information text (review with KWL chart and tell with information retell sheet)

  • Summarizing

  • Vocabulary Review and Extension Activities

  • Vocabulary Introduction and Preview


After reading1

After Reading

  • Question-Answering

  • Reaction Frames

    • Child’s attention is focused on how

      his/her ideas were revised due to the

      acquisition of new information(helps

      revise preconceived ideas).


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Using Text Structure to Facilitate Discussion


Activity1

Activity

  • Think about how the type and nature of text impacts discussion. . .

  • Read and discuss Stellaluna (pp. 16-17, Resource Packet) and Bats (pp. 18-19, Resource Packet).

    • How is your discussion different?

      • Questions? Vocabulary?

    • If your instructional goal is to build comprehension through discussion, what are the implications for text selection?


Text structure

Text Structure

  • “. . .students who are knowledgeable about and/or follow the author’s structure in their attempts to recall a text remember more than those who do not. Second, more good than poor readers follow the author’s text structure in their attempt to recall a text” (Pearson & Fielding, 1991, p. 827).


Narrative text structure

Narrative Text Structure

  • Story structure underlies the organization of the text (e.g., character clues, plot, setting, conflict, etc.)

  • Recounts personal experience based on something which really happened or might have happened

  • All details work together in an integrated way to create a complete story with beginning, development, turning point, resolution


Critical features

Critical Features

  • Main Character

    • Something About the Character; Character Clues

  • What Happened First

  • What Happened Next, Next, etc.

  • How Did the Story End?

    • Discuss Change in Character


Information text structure

Information Text Structure

  • Many structures (e.g., sequence, compare/contrast, problem/solution).

  • Gives information, explains, clarifies, defines.

  • Teaches, reveals, informs, or amplifies the reader’s understanding.


What are some types of organizational frames

What are Some Types of Organizational Frames?

  • Descriptive

  • Enumerative

  • Cause/Effect

  • Compare/Contrast

  • Problem/Solution

  • Reaction

  • K-W-L with common questions

    • What you think you KNOW

    • What you WANT to Learn

    • What you LEARNED

(Ogle, 1986)


K w l

K-W-L

What You Think You Know

What You Want to Know

What You Learned


Curriculum example

Curriculum Example

  • K-W-L with common sets of questions

    • General Animals

      • What is a reptile? (What makes a reptile a reptile?)

      • What are some types of reptiles?

    • Specific Animals

      • What does it look like?

      • What does it eat?


Extending frameworks to content area instruction

Extending Frameworks to Content Area Instruction

  • Living Things (Animals)

    • What types of animals are ________?

    • What do they look like?

    • What do they eat?

    • Where do they live?

    • How do they survive?

    • What are their challenges? (What threatens their survival?)

    • What is unusual or interesting about them?

    • Hoare are they useful or important?


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

____Name____________________

Topic: PENGUINS

Penguins are ____________________.

By Natalie Golden and Andrea DeLeon, Bren Mar Park


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Penguins eat ________________________________________

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

____________.

Penguins live in ______________________________.

A special fact I learned about Penguins is

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________.


People e g martin luther king

People (e.g., Martin Luther King)

  • Who was he/she?

  • When did he/she live?

  • Why is he/she famous? What were his/her accomplishments?

  • Were there any unusual or interesting things about him?


Holidays e g thanksgiving valentine s day

Holidays(e.g., Thanksgiving, Valentine’s Day)

  • What is the holiday?

  • Why do we celebrate it?

  • How do we celebrate it?

  • What traditions are associated with the holiday?

  • When did we first start celebrating this holiday? When the holiday began, how was it celebrated?


Nonliving objects e g igneous rocks

Nonliving Objects(e.g., Igneous Rocks)

  • What are they?

  • What do they look like, feel like, smell like?

  • Where are they found?

  • How are they formed?

  • Are there different types?

  • What is unusual or interesting about them?

  • How are they useful or important?


Events e g the stamp act

Events(e.g., The Stamp Act)

  • When did this event occur?

  • Where did it occur?

  • Why did it occur?

  • What happened?

  • How did it end?

  • Was there anything usual or interesting that happened?

  • Why was it important?

  • What did people learn from it?


Activity2

Activity

  • Apply the organizing frameworks to your content area units and themes (See Content Area Planning Guide).

  • Does your content area instruction cover any other topics that don’t “fit” the organizing frameworks discussed? If so, what focus questions would apply?

  • Think about/discuss how you will integrate the use of organizing frameworks with other content area instruction.

  • What books and themes will you use for your read aloud time?


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Building Vocabulary


I love the look of words

I Love the Look of Words

Popcorn leaps, popping from the floor

Off a hot black skillet

And into my mouth.

Black words leap,

Snapping from the white page. Rushing my eyes.

Sliding into my brain which gobbles them the

way my tongue and teeth chomp buttered popcorn.

When I have stopped reading,

Ideas from the words stay stuck

In my mind, like the sweet

Smell of butter perfuming my

Fingers long after the popcorn is finished.

I love the book and the look of words

The weight of ideas that popped into my mind

I love the tracks

Of new thinking in my mind

Maya Angelou


Knowledge of a word

Knowledge of a Word

Knowing a vocabulary word is

“not an all-or-nothing proposition”

(Beck & McKeown, 1991)

Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge

Association ComprehensionGeneration

Processing ProcessingProcessing


Knowledge of a word1

Knowledge of a word

  • Association Processing: Students simply learn an association.

  • Examples: a synonym or single context


Knowledge of a word2

Knowledge of a word

  • Comprehension Processing: Students apply a learned association to demonstrate understanding of the word

  • Examples: antonym, filling in a sentence blank, classifying word with other words


Knowledge of a word3

Knowledge of a word

  • Generation Processing: Students take a comprehended association and generating a novel product using it.

  • Examples: restate definition in own words, comparing definition to own experiences, making a novel sentence


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Your Turn: Knowledge of Words

Know it well, can explain it, use it

Know something about it, can relate it to a situation

Have seen or heard the word

Do not know the word

WORD

tyranny

surreptitious

grapnel

purport

sensitive

dubious

(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 12)


Identifying vocabulary words to teach

Identifying Vocabulary Words to Teach

(Stahl, 1986)

  • Is the word important for understanding the meaning of the text?

  • Is student likely to run into the word again and again?

  • Is it likely that the student will get the meaning of the word from the context?

  • Decide how thoroughly the words will have to be taught? (i.e., teaching words that are close to known words).

  • Evaluate student’s depth of knowledge.


Word selection

Word Selection

  • Functional and meaningful

  • Rich, varied, and interesting without compromising the text’s overall meaning

  • Important to understanding the story

    (Kuhn & Stahl, 1998)


Selection criteria for instructional vocabulary

Selection Criteriafor Instructional Vocabulary

(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)


Tier selection approach beck mckeown kucan 2002

Tier Two Words

merchant

required

tend

maintain

performed

fortunate

benevolent

Students’ Likely Expressions

salesperson or clerk

have to

take care of

keep going

did

lucky

kind

Tier Selection Approach(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)


Activity word selection

Activity:Word Selection

  • Choose vocabulary from your book that you feel are difficult.

  • Think about the Tier 1, 2, and 3 word selection criteria.

  • Narrow the list to the words you feel students must know to understand the story, meanings, themes, etc.

  • Identify the words you plan to teach.


Traditional definition

Traditional Definition

delicate is defined by The American Heritage Dictionary as:

(1) pleasing to the senses, especially in a subtle way, (2)

exquisitely fine or dainty, (3) frail in constitution or health,

(4) easily broken or damaged, (5) marked by sensitivity of

discrimination, (6) considerate of the feelings of others, (7)

requiringtactfultreatment, (8) fine or soft in touch or skill,

(9) keenlyaccurate in response or reaction, (10) very

subtle in difference or distinction (p. 378).


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

  • Has excellent definitions and doesn’t use a lot of big words to define other words, nor does it give circular definitions (defining cat as an animal as a cat).

  • Paperback: 1088 pages

  • Publisher: Harpercollins Canada; 2nd edition (January, 2002)

  • ISBN: 0007123046


Cobuild definition

COBUILD Definition

  • COBUILD approach to defining vocabulary—explains words rather than providing obscure definitions

  • Delicate: something that is fragile and needs to be handled carefully

    (Stahl, 1999)


Definitions cobuild

Definitions: COBUILD

Mammal examples: tiger, horse, dolphin, whale, monkey, dog, cat, people, hare, bat

Why are all of these animals called mammals?

Because scientists put animals into groups or categories based on ways they are alike


Definitions cobuild1

Definitions: COBUILD

So, how are these animals alike? Help me think of some things that mammals have in common.

Backbone

Lungs

Warm-blooded

Drinks its mother’s milk as a baby

Most are born from its mother

Has hair/fur on its body


Activity student friendly definitions

Activity: Student Friendly Definitions

  • Write student friendly definitions, examples, and non-examples for the words you selected to teach.


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

  • A Multi-Level Instructional Approach

  • Incidental Exposure

  • Embedded Instruction

  • Extended Instruction


Multi level approach

Multi-Level Approach

  • Incidental Exposure

    • Read storybooks to children that contain varied and complex vocabulary.

      • Much of children’s vocabulary development occurs as a result of incidental and cumulative experience

  • Embedded Instruction

    • Provide embedded instruction on a subset of words from the storybook.

      • Target words that the students are unlikely to know and that they will continue to encounter in school and in texts.

  • Extended Instruction

    • Provide extended instruction on a subset of words from the storybook.

      • Target words that are essential for understanding important ideas and concepts in the story and that students need to make immediate use of.


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Incidental Exposure


Exposure to print senechal legevre hudson lawson 1996

Exposure to Print(Senechal, LeGevre, Hudson, & Lawson, 1996)

  • Shared Reading

    • provides exposure to words not frequently encountered in the spoken language

    • undivided attention of an adult

      • questioning, reinforcing new knowledge

    • children are frequently read the same book a number of times encouraging memory and repetition


Exposure to print senechal legevre hudson lawson 19961

Exposure to Print(Senechal, LeGevre, Hudson, & Lawson, 1996)

  • Looked at student knowledge of storybooks to examine variance in vocabulary scores

  • Found that storybook exposure explained variance in vocabulary even after other factors (IQ, SES) were controlled for.


Exposure to print senechal legevre hudson lawson 19962

Exposure to Print(Senechal, LeGevre, Hudson, & Lawson, 1996)

  • Participants - 119 children ages 3 to 6 and their parents

  • Experiment #1 - Parents’ knowledge of storybooksexplained variance in children’s receptivevocabulary after controlling for IQ, parents’ exposure to adult reading material and parents’ education

    • Parent knowledge of storybooks positively correlated with children’s vocabulary scores

  • LET’S TRY!


Exposure to print senechal legevre hudson lawson 19963

Exposure to Print(Senechal, LeGevre, Hudson, & Lawson, 1996)

  • Experiment #2 - Children’s knowledge of storybooks was related to exposure

    • Parent knowledge of storybooks positively correlated with children’s vocabulary scores

    • Children’s knowledge of book titles was moderately correlated with parental knowledge of children’s books, number of children's books in the home, storybook reading onset and frequency of library attendance.


Why storybook reading

Why Storybook Reading?

  • Research suggests that book-reading experiences foster vocabulary growth. (e.g., Elley 1989, Rice, 1990).

  • Talk focused on the meaning of stories fosters vocabulary growth. (e.g., Dickinson & Smith, 1994.).

  • Storybooks provide a rich source of vocabulary. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998).


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Selected Statistics for Major Sources of Spoken and Written Language (Sample Means)

Rank of Median Word

Rare Words per 1000

PRINTED TEXTSAbstracts of scientific articles4389128.0Newspapers1690 68.3Popular magazines1399 65.7Adult books1058 52.7Comic books 867 53.5Children’s books 627 30.9Preschool books 578 16.3

TELEVISION TEXTSPopular prime-time adult shows 490 22.7Popular prime-time children’s shows 543 20.2Cartoon shows 598 30.8Mr. Rogers and Sesame Street 413 2.0ADULT SPEECHExpert witness testimony1008 28.4College graduates to friends, spouses 496 17.3

(Adapted from Hayes and Ahrens, 1988)


Incidental benefits with repeated readings

Incidental Benefits withRepeated Readings

  • Studies indicate that it is more beneficial to read the same story several times rather than just once.

  • Effects on broad language skills, vocabulary, and future reading success.

  • Three times seems to be sufficient to get the effect.


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Now a look at Vocabulary Instruction. . .


Effects of instruction

Effects of Instruction

Type of Instruction

Instructional Time per Word

Breadth of Word Knowledge

Depth of Word Knowledge

Embedded Instruction

3-minutes

2 to 3 words learned

Partial Knowledge

Extended Instruction

2 to 3 words learned

FullKnowledge

15-minutes


Vocabulary instruction

Vocabulary Instruction

  • Embedded Instruction

    • Simple explanation within the context of the story (e.g., Biemiller & Boote, 2006; Penno et al., 2002)

    • Time efficient – allows for introduction of many words (breadth)

    • Few exposures to target words, limited to the context of the story


Vocabulary instruction1

Vocabulary Instruction

  • Extended Instruction

    • Robust approach that “offers rich information about words and their use” (e.g., Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002; Coyne, Simmons, Kame’enui, & Stoolmiller, 2004)

    • Time intensive –limits instruction to fewer words (depth)

    • Many encounters with words in varied contexts beyond the story


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Embedded Instruction


What the research says

What the Research Says

  • A reader has about a 5 percent change of learning a new word fully from encountering it only once in print. Therefore, when specific words are key to understanding a concept, intentional, explicit instruction in word meanings is efficient and productive (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987).


Facilitating vocabulary during reading

Facilitating VocabularyDuring Reading

  • Introduce target words before reading the story.

  • As you come to words in the story, point to an illustration, give a definition, or act out the word.

  • Engage students in dialogue about the target words. Students should actually say the words during the dialogic interactions.


Teaching vocabulary during reading

Teaching Vocabulary During Reading

  • Ask the child to repeat the synonym or definition.

  • Focus on one interpretation of the word at a time.

  • Important to begin to use the word in slightly different contexts (e.g., uses of word beyond the story context).


Teaching vocabulary during reading1

Teaching Vocabulary During Reading

  • Relate the word to the student’s personal experiences.

  • Point to illustrations, give brief definitions, or demonstrate the word through action or voice inflection.

  • Repeat words and provide multiple exposures!


Vocabulary routine

Vocabulary Routine

  • Vocabulary Teaching Routine

    • Teacher: Introduce/review vocabulary word

    • Students: Say the word

    • Teacher: Define the word

    • Students: Say the word’s definition

    • Teacher: Encourage students to listen for and use new vocabulary


Stoplight vocabulary

Stoplight Vocabulary

OR


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

Extended Instruction


Varied and rich

Varied and Rich

  • Provide opportunities to discuss words in extended discourse before and after reading.

  • Provide tasks that challenge students to process word meanings at a deeper and more complex level.

    • Classifying the word with other words (e.g., concept maps, word maps, semantic maps)

    • Finding a synonym or antonym

    • Making up a novel sentence with the word

    • Relating the definition to one’s experience


Making the most of read aloud time presentation

  • Extended Instruction

  • Making Semantic Connections and Promoting Relationships Between Words

  • Promoting Interactions with Words


What the research says1

What the Research Says

  • People’s ability to infer or retain new words in general is strongly dependent on their background knowledge of other words and concepts (Robbins & Ehri, 1994).

  • Read an article from a Melbourne, Australia newspaper. . .


Making semantic connections

Making Semantic Connections

  • Classifying words with other words

  • Concept Definition Mapping (Schwartz, 1988)

    • Strategy for teaching students the meaning of key concepts

    • Graphic organizers that help students understand the essential attribute of a words meaning

  • Empirically demonstrated to facilitate student success in vocabulary development (e.g., Anderson-Inman, Knox-Quinn, & Horney, 1996; Bos & Anders, 1990; Morre & Readance, 1984)


  • Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Graphic Organizers

    vegetation

    food

    climate

    habitat

    geographic

    region

    water

    source


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Synonyms

    Antonyms

    Examples

    Non-Examples

    Powerful Concept Maps

    Beauty


    Use powerful word maps

    Use Powerful Word Maps!

    • Four Square

      • Examples and non-examples

      • Synonyms and antonyms

    • Four Square

      • Student Friendly Definition

      • Synonyms

      • Picture

      • Used in Sentence

    • Same/Opposite

    • Yes/No Examples


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    • Extended Instruction

    • Making Semantic Connections and Promoting Relationships Between Words

    • Promoting Interactions with Words


    What the research says2

    What the Research Says

    • A robust approach to vocabulary involves directly explaining the meanings of word along with thought-provoking, playful, and interactive follow-up. (Beck et al., 2002)


    Vocabulary

    Vocabulary

    • Vocabulary Expansion

      • Questions (Q)

      • Reasons (R)

      • Examples (E)


    Vocabulary methodology

    Vocabulary Methodology

    Beck, I., McKeown, M., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life. Guildford Press: New York.


    Questions reasons examples

    Questions, Reasons, Examples

    (Q) If you chew little pieces of a cracker, are you nibbling the cracker? (R) How do you know?

    (Q) If you take a huge bite from an apple, are you nibbling the apple? (R) How do you know?

    (E) Give me an example of a food you would nibble.

    (E) Give me an example of a food you would chomp.

    (Q/E) What animal might nibble their food?

    (Q/E) What animal might chomp their food?


    Questions

    Questions

    I’d like you to look at this picture and see if you can remember what happened during this part of the story.

    “Dodging and shrieking, Mother Bat tried to escape…” Why do you think Mother Bat was flying all around trying to get away from the owl?

    --Objective: try to get students to say “protect”

    Who can tell me what the word protect means?

    To keep safe from injury, danger, damage


    Questions1

    Questions

    Different animals need different things to survive. What does the word survive mean?

    To stay alive


    Examples using words beyond context personal experience

    Examples:Using Words Beyond ContextPersonal Experience

    I am going to say some things and you tell me how they could protect you.

    a pot holder

    a smoke alarm

    mittens

    seat belts

    sunglasses

    suntan lotion


    Examples making choices

    Examples:Making Choices

    I’m going to say some things about what some mammals might need to survive. If you think the mammal needs the item to survive say, “SURVIVE.” If not, shake your head like this –indicate ‘no.’


    Examples making choices1

    Examples:Making Choices

    • If any of these things I say would make someone look ludicrous, say “That’s ludicrous.” If not, don’t say anything.

      • Dressing like a gypsy

      • Playing in a child’s sandbox when you are an adult

      • Dancing to music

      • Eating 50 hotdogs in one sitting

      • Playing in a band

    • If any of the things I say would make someone look radiant, say “You’d be radiant.” If not, don’t say anything.

      • Ranking leaves in your yard

      • A bride dressed for her wedding

      • Participating in a marathon

      • Meeting your favorite rock star

      • Cleaning your garage


    Video vocabulary examples

    VideoVocabulary Examples

    Before Reading Vocabulary Discussion

    After Reading Vocabulary Review

    • How does the teacher use the vocabulary teaching routine? Are any components missing? If so, what components?

    • Describe the use of vocabulary expansion (e.g., use of vocabulary questions, reasons, and examples).


    Activity3

    Activity

    • Highlight the vocabulary instruction in the sample lessons.

      • Highlight the vocabulary teaching routines

      • Highlight vocabulary expansion opportunities.

      • Add notes for vocabulary expansion (e.g., questions, reasons, and examples).


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Retelling, Summarizing, and Reacting


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Retelling


    Guidelines for retells

    Guidelines for Retells

    • MODEL retells.

    • Prompt students to talk in complete sentences

    • When you model a retell, try to use some of the target vocabulary in the retell if possible

    • Demonstrate how to use simple sketches and pictures when completing the retell sheets

    • Use retell sheets for monitoring and student partner checks

    (Hansen, 1978; Irlen, 2003; Santoro, Chard, Howard, & Baker, 2008; Williams, 2005)


    Curriculum example1

    Curriculum Example

    • Teacher retellings

      “I’m going to retell the story Bear Snores On. [Teacher models retell] Did I include all the story information in my retell?”


    Video preparing for retells

    VideoPreparing for Retells

    • Retell Discussion

    • Retell Model


    Retelling with book club partners

    Retelling with Book Club Partners

    • Creating book clubs. . .

    • •Rank order students.

    • •Split the rank ordered list into the top and bottom halves.

    • •Pair the top ranked student in the upper half with the top ranked student in the lower half (i.e., #1 with # 13 if class has 26 students).

    • Pair the next two students according to the above procedures

    • These 4 students will be Book Group 1.

    • •Adjust pairings according to “personality” issues.

    • Modified from Hasbrouck, 1998.


    Retelling with book clubs partners

    Retelling with Book Clubs Partners

    • Establish guidelines and a routine

    • Limit the amount of time book clubs talk (e.g., 2 minutes with reminders to take turns at 30 sec., 60 sec., etc.)

    • Behavior expectations are ESSENTIAL!


    Curriculum example2

    Curriculum Example

    • Student Retellings with Partners

      “Listeners, think about whether your partner said everything he or she was supposed to. If they included the book type, topic, and information about what makes an animal a mammal AND what types of animals are mammals, tell them they did a good job. If your partner didn’t say one or more of those things, you need to tell him or her they should do so next time.”


    Video student retell practice

    VideoStudent Retell Practice


    Hurray for retells

    Hurray for Retells!

    • Retells are IMPORTANT so add lots of HYPE and EXCITEMENT!


    For additional practice consider literature discussion groups

    For Additional Practice, Consider Literature Discussion Groups

    • Encourage the use of meaningful vocabulary

    • Provide facilitators as necessary (yarn, paper clips, graphic organizers, strategy cards)

    • Make this a routine with heterogeneous language groups


    Where s the evidence

    Where’s the Evidence?

    • Ask students to generate a question from the text. On paper, have them write the question, its answer, and the page number wherever the answer is located in the text.

    • Have students ask their questions without revealing the answers.

    • After other students respond, have the student who asked the question confirm whether the answer is correct or incorrect.

    • Ask students to generate three or four more questions. . . “Play Teacher”


    Activity4

    Activity

    • Using the sample text, play Where’s the Evidence in small groups.


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Summarizing


    Rap strategy schumaker denton deshler 1984

    RAP Strategy (Schumaker, Denton, & Deshler, 1984)

    • Read a paragraph.

      • Read the paragraph silently. As you read, be sure to think about what the words mean.

    • Ask yourself, “What were the main ideas and details of this paragraph?”

      • Ask, “What are the main ideas and details?” This question helps you think about what you just read. To help you, you may need to look quickly back over the paragraph an find the main idea and the details that are related to this paragraph.

    • Put the main idea and details in your own words.

      • Now put the main idea and details into your own words. When you the information in your own words, it helps you remember the information. Try to give at least two details related to the main idea.


    Demonstrate explicit steps strategies

    Demonstrate Explicit Steps & Strategies

    Curriculum example: Identifying the Main Idea

    Example:

    Tell students that it is impossible to remember everything that they read – especially when they are reading expository text. Explain that learning how to identify the most important, or main, idea of a passage will make it easier for them to remember what they read. Point out that a main idea can be summed up in one sentence.

    Say: “We are going to figure out the main idea of a group of sentences. There are two steps in thinking of a main-idea sentence. First we name the person in the paragraph. Second, we will tell the main thing that the person did in all the sentences.”

    (From Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)

    (Coyne, Kame’enui, & Chard, 2003)


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Using a Main Idea Chart

    Paragraph/

    Section

    Details

    Main Idea


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Using a Main Idea Chart

    Paragraph/

    Section

    Details

    Main Idea

    Bantu migrated south

    Wars during the

    Bantu migration

    resulted in many

    small tribes’ demise.

    1

    They fought other tribes

    They often won

    Losing tribes joined them


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Main Idea Sentence

    Detail 1

    Detail 2

    Detail 3


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Summary Chart

    Main Idea

    Main Idea

    Main Idea

    Summary


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Reacting


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Reaction Frames


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Reaction Frames


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    3

    Things you found out:

    Interesting things:

    2

    Question you still have:

    1


    Activity5

    Activity

    • Discuss strategies for promoting instructionally effective and efficient retell discussions.

    • Look at Read Aloud lessons and highlight the retell models. Note strategies and ideas for retell models. For example, will you model and skip a critical component of the retell so students can monitor and provide feedback?

    • List ideas for making student retell practice effective and efficient. How will you group students? How will you manage time? How can you streamline retell routines?


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Pulling the “Before-During-After” Together


    Video information read aloud

    VideoInformation Read Aloud

    • Unit 4: Reptiles (Information Text, Lesson #2)

      • Are the main components of the Read Aloud program implemented?

      • List effective instructional strategies.

        • Before, During, and After

      • What would you recommend to improve or enhance the Read Aloud instruction?

        • Before, During, and After


    Video storybook read aloud

    VideoStorybook Read Aloud

    • Unit 4: Reptiles (Story Text, Lesson #4)

      • Are the main components of the Read Aloud program implemented?

      • List effective instructional strategies.

        • Before, During, and After

      • What would you recommend to improve or enhance the Read Aloud instruction?

        • Before, During, and After


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Building Comprehension with Text-Focused Discourse


    Text focused discourse

    Text-Focused Discourse

    • Discourse guides students to understand text at a more sophisticated level (Wilkinson & Silliman, 2000).

    • Builds on ideas and promotes meaningful connections between ideas (Gersten et al., 2001).

    • Can clarify and substantiate students’ understandings of concepts, vocabulary & ideas (Pressley & McCormick, 1995).


    What we know interactive dialogue

    What We Know:Interactive Dialogue

    • Requires a student to step back and reflect on the storyline or the language in the story.

    • Students must become part of the teacher-student dialogue by actively contributing or attending.

    • Leads to deep processing, repetition, and additional connections.

    (Beck, McKeown, Hamilton, & Kucan, 1997; Whitehurst et al., 1994)


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Using Effective Teacher Talk

    (Beck, McKeown, Sandora, Kucan, & Worthy, 1996; Berry, 2006; Boyd, 2006; Echevarria, 1995; Goldenberg, 1982; Goldman & Rakestraw, 2000; Kucan & Beck, 1997 )


    Teachers ask effective questions

    Teachers Ask Effective Questions

    • Questions progress from literal (or explicit) to more complex (or implicit).

      • Always remember your instructional purpose and learners’ skill levels!

    • Questions should elicit more than a simple yes or no response.

    • Ask students’ opinion or feelings.


    Teachers ask effective questions1

    Teachers Ask Effective Questions


    Levels of questions make a difference

    Levels of Questions Make a Difference

    Different levels of questions can help students increase their comprehension of texts that are read aloud and those that are read independently.


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Remember

    Understand

    Apply

    Analyze

    Evaluate

    Create

    Recall information

    Grasp the meaning

    Use learned material in new ways

    Use procedures and knowledge

    Separate and understand the parts of something

    Make decisions

    Judge something based on criteria

    Make connections

    Put elements together

    Define

    Identify

    Label

    List

    Match

    Name

    Recognize

    Repeat

    Describe

    Discuss

    Explain

    Extent

    Give examples

    Illustrate

    Paraphrase

    Summarize

    Clarify

    Construct

    Implement

    Demonstrate

    Discover

    Predict

    Relate

    Show

    Solve

    Use

    Classify

    Collect

    Compare

    Contrast

    Determine

    Distinguish

    cause and effect

    Infer

    Point out

    Draw conclusions

    Distinguish

    Conclude

    Judge

    Rate

    Choose

    Select

    Measure

    Weigh

    Test

    Check

    Combine

    Compose

    Imagine

    What if…

    Suppose

    Create

    Design

    Develop

    Plan

    Rearrange

    Continuum of Questions

    (Adapted from Anderson & Krathwohl, 200; UT System/TEA, 2003)


    Activity6

    Activity

    • Develop the following question types for “Mary Had a Little Lamb”

      • Remember

      • Understand

      • Apply

      • Analyze

      • Evaluate

      • Create


    Mary had a little lamb

    Mary Had a Little Lamb

    Mary had a little lamb,

    Its fleece was white as snow.

    Everywhere that Mary went,

    The lamb was sure to go.

    It followed her to school one day,

    Which was against the rules.

    It made the children laugh and play,

    To see a lamb at school.


    Activity7

    Activity

    • Using the sample read aloud lesson as a guide, generate questions that represent a continuum of complexity. Be sure to include types and levels of questions that are complex/analytical as well as simple/literal.

      • Write 2 questions you could ask before reading.

      • Write 2 questions you could ask during reading.

      • Write 2 questions you could ask after reading.


    Teachers use explicit instructional strategies

    Teachers Use Explicit Instructional Strategies

    • Explicitly teaching children to apply comprehension strategies when they read improves their comprehension (Duke & Perason, 2002; National Reading Panel, 2000).

      • Monitoring comprehension and adjusting as needed

      • Activating and applying relevant prior knowledge (including making predictions)

      • Generating questions and/or thinking aloud

      • Attending to and uncovering text structure

      • Drawing inferences

      • Constructing visual representations

      • Summarizing


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Comprehension Strategies Chart

    (Barton & Sawyer, 2003)

    Taking Multiple Perspectives

    InferenceStrategies

    Making Thematic Connections

    Making Predictions

    Determining Cause and Effect

    Drawing Conclusions

    Envisioning Character Change

    Literal Strategies

    Summarizing

    Comparing and Contrasting

    Sequencing

    Locating details


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    How to Teach Monitoring and Clarifying

    Teacher actions should model how to stop periodically and check understanding.

    Example- Teacher thinks aloud:

    Every now and then I stop reading and see if the story is making sense. I ask myself if I know who the story is about and what is happening.


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    How to Teach Monitoring and Clarifying

    Teacher actions should model how to respond when

    something doesn’t make sense.

    Example- Teacher says:

    If I come to a word I don’t know, I can keep reading to see if the rest of the sentence helps me figure it out. If that doesn’t work, I might ask someone for help or look it up in the dictionary.


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    How to Teach Monitoring and Clarifying

    Teacher actions should model how to respond when

    something doesn’t make sense.

    Example- Teacher says:

    If I don’t understand what’s

    happening in the story, I would go back and reread part

    of the story to see if it helps me understand what is

    happening.


    Teaching inferences

    Teaching Inferences

    Clues from the text:

    Clues from my experience:

    My inference is:


    Questions for predictions

    Questions for Predictions

    • What do you predict will happen next?

    • Was your prediction accurate? Why?/How?

    • If your prediction wasn’t accurate, how did you use the text to make your prediction?


    Predicting

    Predicting

    Prediction

    Prove


    Activity8

    Activity

    • Look at the sample lessons.

      • What levels/types of questions are used?

      • What are the embedded instructional strategies?


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    . . .Facilitating Read Aloud Talk

    • Frequently Asked Questions and Troubleshooting

    -See “Talk Dr.”

    -Some of the following examples are from Beck, McKeown, Hamiltion, & Kucan (1997).Questioning the Author: An Approach for Enhancing Student Engagement with Text. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.


    How do i know when i am leading the discussions too much

    How do I know when I am leading the discussions too much?

    • . . .when you are doing too much of the talking.

    • If you do most of the talking, you are probably doing most of the thinking.

    • Try giving a small amount of information, perhaps by modeling. For example, “What I was thinking about here was that. . .” Then, pose a follow-up question.


    How can i tell when i am not leading discussions enough

    How can I tell when I am not leading discussions enough?

    • . . .when students are repeating responses.

    • . . .when a lot of time is spent discussing issues that are tangential rather than central to the text.

    • Try to lead more by using questions that restore focus on important ideas (Turn Back, Rephrase, Recap).


    Do i always have to follow up what students say

    Do I always have to follow-up what students say?

    • Yes! You should be responding implicitly or explicitly to all students who offer responses.

    • But, every student’s response does not need to be extensively followed up.

      • When responses are sufficient to cover a point, use an acknowledgment. “Ok, so John just noticed something interesting.”

      • When a response is not useful, mark the response in a neutral way. “Ok, that’s an interesting point.”

    • Remember, a discussion is most effective and constructive when students address and respond to one another’s ideas.


    How do i handle a response that contains wrong or mostly wrong information

    How do I handle a response that contains wrong or mostly wrong information?

    • If the problem involves misunderstanding or misinterpretations of text information, you might ask the student to reconsider his or her response by using a follow-up question.

      • For example, “Hmm. Is that really what the author said?”


    How do i handle a response that contains mostly wrong information

    How do I handle a response that contains mostly wrong information?

    • If students seem deeply confused, you may want to explicitly redirect the student to what the text said.

    • Another approach is to “model confusion.”

      • For example, “This is confusing; the author hasn’t really made this clear.”

    • Turn the thinking back, “Jorge said ______. Do you agree?

    • “How do you know?”

    • “I think you are saying. . .”

    • [Repeat the part of the lesson that introduced that material]


    What if a student comes up with a good idea that i don t want to deal with right then

    What if a student comes up with a good idea that I don’t want to deal with right then?

    • Ask the student to hold the thought for a while and mention that you will return to it later.

    • You acknowledge the idea, but signal that you are going to move on.

    • Making a note on the chalkboard might be a way to remember points you want to consider at another time.


    What if a student is talking off topic

    What if a student is talking off topic?

    • (You may have to interrupt)

    • “That is an interesting story, but we are talking about _______ right now.”

    • “Let’s save that story for later when we are all done.”

    • “Remember, we are talking about _____ right now.”

    • “Let me say the question again.”

    • “Save your idea and you can tell me as we walk back to class.”


    What about students who do not participate

    What about students who do not participate?

    • Try to elicit a few quick responses from a sample of students who are a little reluctant to participate.

      • For example, “What do you think, Jorge? And you, Larry? And, Mary, what about you? Or “All of you who agree with Suzy, raise your hand.” [Piggyback]


    What about students who do not participate1

    What about students who do not participate?

    • Try to turn the thinking back.

      • For example, “Mary told us what she thinks, what do you think of her idea?”

    • Try calling on students who seem to be on the verge of speaking but then shy away from it. Respond with lots of praise and excitement when they do respond.


    What if you ask a question and no one answers

    What if you ask a question and no one answers?

    • Ask the child directly

    • Rephrase the question

    • Model for the students

    • Reteach

    • “I think the author was saying ______. Do you agree?”

    • Give the inverse of the question. (E.g., if you are looking for a student to say “the reptiles have scales” say, “so do reptiles have fur?”)

    • Give a choice. (E.g., “Is a sea turtle a mammal or a reptile?”)


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Increasing Student Talk

    (Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Palincsar, Brown, & Campione, 1993; Santoro, Baker, Chard, & Howard, 2007; Rosner, Hoffman, Labbo, & Farest, 1992; Wong & Jones, 1982).


    Students ask effective questions

    Students Ask Effective Questions


    How do you teach students to ask questions

    How do you teach students to ask questions?

    • Question Cards

      • Green Cards (Before)

      • Yellow Cards (During)

      • Red Cards (After)

    (UT System/TEA, 2002)


    Green

    Green

    • What does the title say?

    • What do the pictures say?

    • What do I already know about?

      • If reading chapter books, review what happened.


    Yellow cards

    Yellow Cards

    • Who?

      • Tell who the story is about, or name the characters.

    • What?

      • State the problem.

    • When?

      • Tell the time the story takes place.

    • Where?

      • Tell the time the story takes place.

        Why?

      • Explain why something happened.

    • How?

      • Tell how the problem was solved.

    • What do I think will happen next?

      • Make predictions.


    Red cards

    Red Cards

    • Who were the characters?

      • State the main characters.

    • What was the setting?

      • Tell when and where the story takes place.

    • What was the problem?

      • Explain the problem (Relate the characters)

    • How was the problem solved?

      • Explain how the problem was resolved.

    • What did. . .?

      • Elaborate on why something happened.


    Activity9

    Activity

    • Modify the sample lesson to include the use of question cue cards to facilitate the use of student question asking.

    • What would Information/Expository Cards look like?


    Promoting student talk

    Promoting Student Talk

    • Partner Talk

      Take 30 seconds and tell your partner

      Turn to your neighbor and tell. . .

    • Think Pair ShareAgree?/Disagree? Why?

      Who has a different idea?

    • Discourse Follow-up and Elaboration

      How do you know?

      Why do you think that?

      Tell me more about. . .


    Partner talk

    Partner Talk

    • Turn to your partner and. . .

      • Tell who the story is about. Who is the main character?

      • Tell one thing we just learned about mammals.

      • Tell what you think will happen next.


    Think pair share lyman 1981

    Think-Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981)

    • THINK. Teacher promotes students’ thinking with a question or prompt.

    • PAIR. Using designated partners, students PAIR up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique.


    Think pair share lyman 19811

    Think-Pair-Share (Lyman, 1981)

    • SHARE. After students talk in pairs for a few moments, the teacher calls for pairs to SHARE their thinking with the rest of the class. Can record student responses on chart paper or on the overhead.


    Activity10

    Activity

    • Enhance the sample lesson with student partner talk opportunities. When and how could student partner talk opportunities be used?


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Using Talk Routines


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Follow-up, Elaborate, Expand, and Rephrase & Repeat

    (Beck, McKeown, Sandora, Kucan, & Worthy, 1996; Berry, 2006; Boyd, 2006)


    Follow up

    Follow-up

    • If you want a student to clarify or demonstrate their understanding. . .

    • If you want a student to show how they are thinking about the text. . .

    • If you want to keep the group discussion going. . .


    Follow up1

    Follow-up

    • Use Follow-up Questions

      • Why?

        • Why do you think that. . .

      • How?

        • How do you know?

      • What?

        • What does the text say? What do you think the author might be trying to say? What do you make of this? What do you think that means? What’s this all about?

      • Connect it!

        • How does this connect to . . .? [Text to Self, Text to Text, Text to World]


    Follow up2

    Follow-up

    • Turn the thinking back to students for further consideration.

      • Maria thinks the girl is upset. Does anyone know why she is upset?


    Try it

    Try It

    • Turn the thinking back

      • S: Polly is the main character.

      • T: ?

      • S: I think reptiles have clear eyelids to help protect their eyes.

      • T: ?

      • S: McDuff wanted a home.

      • T: ?


    Elaborate

    Elaborate

    • If a student provides a simple (“unsophisticated”) response to an open ended question.

    • If you want a student to add more information or content to their response.


    If a student provides a simple response to an open ended question

    If a student provides a simple response to an open ended question. . .

    • Ask student to. . .

      • Elaborate what they are thinking or feeling about an event or character in a story, etc.

        • Tell me more about. . .

        • Why/why not?

        • That’s right. Now tell me one more thing about. . .

        • Add more about _______.


    Expand

    Expand

    • If a student provides a limited utterance or short response.

    • . . .think Language Expansion!


    If a student provides a limited utterance or short response

    If a student provides a limited utterance or short response. . .

    • Prompt the child

      • What is this? (a cat)

    • Evaluate what the child says

      • Think about what the child says. Is the answer correct? What information can you add?

    • Expand on what the child says

      • Yes, it’s a big orange cat. Now you say that.

    • ask childtoRepeat.

      • (a big orange cat).


    Try it1

    Try It

    • T: Who is the main character?

    • S: Stellaluna

    • Evaluate?

    • Expand. . .

    • Student Repeats


    Try it2

    Try It

    • Teacher: Nibble means to bite off and eat in small pieces. Watch me. . .This is what nibbling looks like. Show me what nibbling looks like. Now tell me what nibbling means.

    • Student: taking small bites

    • Evaluate?

    • Expand. . .

    • Student Repeats


    Super sentences

    Super Sentences!

    • Student Purpose:Now that you’ve had practice showing what the expert words mean by pointing to pictures, let’s use “super-sentences” to talk about some of the words. Super-sentences help show what we know about expert words. Super-sentences use lots of words to explain the whole idea (or big idea) of what we know, not just part (or a little) of what we know.

    • Tell me a type of animal that is a reptile. Remember, a reptile is an animal that has a backbone (spine), lungs, scales on its body, is cold-blooded, and hatches from an egg. You can start out your super-sentence by saying “I know that a ________ is a reptile because. . .”

    • My turn,“I know that a crocodile is a reptile because it is cold-blooded, has a scaly skin, and it hatches from eggs.”

    • Your turn,“I know that a ______ is a reptile because it. . .” You can talk about crocodiles or another type of reptile.

    (Santoro, Chard, & Williams, 2007)


    More super sentences

    More Super Sentences

    • Use a super-sentence to tell me why a mother crocodile might want to keep her babies in a nursery. Remember, nursery means a place where young animals stay together. You can start out your super-sentence by saying “The mother crocodile keeps her babies in a nursery because. . .”

    • My turn,“The mother crocodile keeps her babies in a nursery because she can protect them and keep them safe.”

    • Your turn, “The mother crocodile keeps her babies in a nursery because. . .”

    (Santoro, Chard, & Williams, 2007)


    Video kwl with language expansion

    VideoKWL with Language Expansion

    • How does the teacher use language expansion during the KWL review?


    Recognize and repeat

    Recognize and Repeat

    • Recognize when students have contributed to a discussion by repeating or rephrasing.

      • T: Brian noticed that the mother in the story was angry.


    Try it3

    Try It

    • Recognize with rephrase or repeat

      • S: I think reptiles have clear eyelids to help protect their eyes.

      • T: ?

      • S: Fancy Nancy likes using fancy words.

      • T: ?


    Wait time

    Wait Time

    • Give sufficient wait time for students to think and respond.

      • Be Patient!

    • Wait about 4 seconds after you ask a question.

    • If you do not get an answer, be prepared to ask a question that prompts a response.

      • T: Did the boys leave to go the movies or did the boys arrive late at the movies?


    Video small group instruction

    VideoSmall Group Instruction

    • Examples

      • Students Answer Correctly

      • Students Answer Incorrectly

      • Students Provide No Response


    Activity11

    Activity

    • Talk Routine Practice

    • When would you use the following talk routines? Why does the routine support student comprehension?

      • Follow-up

      • Elaborate

      • Expand

      • Recognize and Repeat

      • Wait Time


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Optimizing Read Aloud Time


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Working with English Language Learners


    Vocabulary1

    Vocabulary

    • Focus on functional, high-frequency words

      • backbone, lungs, protect

    • Look for words that sound “fun”

    • Model and discuss how words work

      • Compound words: toothbrush, toothache, suitcase

    • Use modeling and repetition to present and practice words

    • Use pictures


    Modeling and practice with repetition

    Modeling and Practice with Repetition

    • “A mammal has a backbone. What does a mammal have?”

    • Start student answers: “You can start your answer with. . .”

    • Model retells with clear, complete sentences.

    • Practice sentence expansion and talking in complete sentences

      • Sentences don’t have to be too long, just clear and direct.


    Start read aloud time with quick reviews

    Start Read Aloud Time with Quick Reviews

    • Repeat and practice vocabulary words

    • Review academic language

      • A main character is. . .

      • What happened first means. . .


    During reading strategies

    During Reading Strategies

    • Focus on the language of the text. For example, during the second or third reading, show the pictures after each page is read.

      • Why? Not seeing the pictures makes student listen.

    • Emphasize vocabulary during “text-to-self” connections (e.g., tooth, toothache). Shared stories generate language.

    • Use the text to find “what we learned.”

      • Students can point to words and pictures in text.


    A couple big ideas

    A Couple “Big Ideas”

    • Importance of expository text

    • Don’t oversimplify

      • Don’t modify wording or reduce the complexity of the language. . .if needed, reduce the content.


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Managing Read Aloud Time


    Rules and expectations

    Rules and Expectations

    • Specify rules and expectations

      • Keep the rules to a minimum and order them according to their importance

      • Design rules that are explicit

      • Design rules that define positive expectations

      • Keep the wording of the rules simple

      • Use different rules for different situations

      • Post the rules in a prominent position

      • Teach the rules and review them


    Rules and expectations1

    Rules and Expectations

    • Use a “pre-unit’ to teach read aloud routines

    • Present and reinforce rules for how students are to behave during instruction at the beginning of the session

    • Preteach requirements for each task (e.g, model behavior and how to respond)

      • Provide examples. Ask students to provide examples.


    Positive reinforcement

    Positive Reinforcement

    • Provide specific praise

      • Provide students with a positive statement and feedback about appropriate conduct

        • “Juan, thank you for waiting until Samantha finished talking before you started your retell.”


    Encourage academic success

    Encourage Academic Success

    • Model

    • Define concepts

    • Check for student understanding

    • Guide students during practice

    • Monitor and adjust instruction (individualize instruction for students in your group!)

    • Provide advance organizers

    • Minimize “down time”

    • Keep an engaging lesson pace. . .


    Promoting student engagement and talk

    Promoting StudentEngagement and Talk

    • Group Responses

      Thumbs up, Thumbs down

      Everyone, think to yourself …

    • Follow-up ResponsesAgree?/Disagree? Why?

      Who has a different idea?

    • Book Club Partners

      Take 30 seconds and tell your partner

      Turn to your neighbor and tell. . .


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Extending Read Alouds


    Structure ample review and practice

    Structure Ample Review and Practice

    • After students have learned individual strategies, teachers should have them apply strategies to a wide range of texts. For example, once students have learned how to retell simple stories, engage them at retelling more sophisticated selections as well as informational books. By providing ample review, students will learn to independently determine how, when, and why to use retell.

    Review needs to be sufficient, distributed across time, cumulative, and varied


    Extension activities

    Extension Activities

    • Extension activities for vocabulary words

    • Re-Reading the text a 2nd or 3rd time

    • Reading unread parts of the information text

    • Web-based activities and information seeking

    • Writing using retell or summary sheets

    • Compare and Contrast across texts

    • Thematic connections, other book recommendations, activities, etc.

    • Any other ideas?


    Video making connections

    VideoMaking Connections

    • Snake Skin!

    • Snow and Tell!: Your Ideas


    School home connection

    School-Home Connection

    • Send student story and information retell/summary sheets home

    • Ask students to retell or summarize a story or talk about an information book with a family member

    • Ask students to find out one new fact about a particular topic (main idea)

    • Ask parents to share a fact about a particular comprehension theme or topic

    • Any other ideas?


    Concluding discussion

    Concluding Discussion

    • Think thematically and pair information and narrative books.

    • Plan read alouds more strategically.

      • How will you use a repeated reading model? How can you read books differently for different comprehension purposes?

      • What text-to-text, text-to-self, text-to-world links will you use?

      • What comprehension frameworks will you use?

        • How will these frameworks be used before, during, and after (retells!) reading?

      • What vocabulary words will you select?

        • What vocabulary routines will you use? How will you use questions, reasons, and examples?

      • How will you expand discourse and facilitate talk during read alouds?

        • What ways can you increase your use of partner talk?


    Concluding thoughts

    Concluding Thoughts


    Making the most of read aloud time

    Making the Most of Read Aloud Time

    • Creating rich text-based discourse

    • Using text-structure as the anchor or framework for discussion

    • Asking varied levels of questions

    • Increasing student talk by teaching students how to ask questions and using partner talk opportunities

    • Using elaboration, expansion, and follow-up


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    Complex Cognitive Process

    Interactive

    Intentional Interaction Between Reader and Text

    Highly Purposeful


    Making the most of read aloud time presentation

    • Lana Edwards Santoro, Ph.D.

      (703) 971-0310 /office

      lsantoro@pacificir.org

      lana.santoro@earthlink.net


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