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June 16, 2004 FHWA Talking Freight Seminar Programming for Trade Growth Louis Rubenstein Port Traffic Engineer r8 Outline Growth Trends Container Shipping Basics Bigger Ships, Terminals Landside Impact Constraints Expansion Programs Environment Reducing Truck Impacts

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June 16, 2004FHWA Talking Freight Seminar

Programming for Trade Growth

Louis Rubenstein

Port Traffic Engineer

r8


Outline l.jpg

Outline

Growth Trends

Container Shipping Basics

Bigger Ships, Terminals

Landside Impact

Constraints

Expansion Programs

Environment

Reducing Truck Impacts


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Why has West Coast Trade Increased?

  • Overall Growth in World Trade

    • Income growth—as reflected in GDP growth

    • Decline in tariff barriers—1974=7.1%; current=1.9%

    • Decline in transportation cost—large ships; double tracks

  • West Coast Competitive Advantages

    • Increase in Asia trades--% U.S. in 1970=8%; 2002=40%

    • Post Panamax container vessels—ships>106 ft beam

    • Intermodal rail system and connecting freeways

    • Good weather

    • Large local market

    • Labor supply


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Socal Ports May Lose Market Share

  • Showing a steady increase since the mid-1990’s, the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles lost 1.5% market share in the first half of 2003

  • Increased capacity at PNW ports

  • Increased capacity on all-water routes

  • West coast currently 48% US total sea trade

  • Growing freeway congestion


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National Demand

  • One half of all LB cargo moves east of Rockies.

  • Chicago: 3- 4 days.

  • NY: 5-6 days.


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2. Container Shipping Basics

  • Competition

  • Service and market share higher priority than cost

  • Sample fee – ship 20 ft container from Shanghai to Oakland $1900, to Chicago $2500 - Oakland to Shanghai $700

  • Volume measured in TEUs, twenty foot equivalent units, 80% are FEUs (40 ft+)

  • Weekly service – N Asia loading 4 days, sea journey 2x6500 miles (27 days) – N America loading 4 days

  • 6000 TEU ship capital cost $120 m or $20,000/TEU

  • Operating cost 4000 TEU ship - $15/TEU/Day

  • 12,000 TEU ship - $12/TEU/Day


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Terminal Land ThroughputFactors: dwell time, value, stack height, empties, crane rates, # handlings, # sorts, random pick up, inspection

Container Yard $/TEU

8500 TEU/acre/yr new stacking system

7000 TEU/acre/yr grounded

3800 TEU/acre/yr wheeled

On Dock Rail Yard

10 container lifts/track foot year

1 acre of rail yard/1000 feet track


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www.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdfwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf


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3. Bigger Ships Bigger Terminalswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

10,000 TEU ship weekly service, 85% discharge

442,000 x 2 = 884,000 TEU/yr

If wheeled: 3800 TEU/acre/yr = 230 acres

If grounded: 7000 TEU/acre/yr = 125 acres

If 25% by rail 221,000/10 = 22,100 track feet

rail yard = 22 acres

20% TEU, 80% FEU – 491,000 containers/yr

1.3 truck trips/container, 5.3 days/wk – 2300 truck trips/ day (0% rail)


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Megashipswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf


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8000 TEU Shipswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf


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Limits to Ship Sizewww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

  • Demand

  • Suez Canal 12,000 TEU

  • L: 1312’, W: 185’, D:56’, AD: 185’

  • Panama Canal Current: 4,400 TEU

  • W:106’

  • Future: 12,000 TEU

  • Malacca Strait 18,000 TEU

  • Port Infrastructure

  • Bridge heights, channel depths & widths


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4. Landside Impact - POLA/LB Inland Flowswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf


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POLB/POLA Daily Tripswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

230,235 PCEs

98,490 PCEs

(Passenger-car-equivalents)


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5. Constraints -Major California / Federal Lawswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

  • CA: Existing ports encouraged to modernize & construct within existing boundaries

  • No new ports allowed on coastline

  • Limits physical boundaries of Port

  • Tidelands Trust

  • Truck appointments

  • EIR

  • Federal: Wetlands, EIS

  • Marine Transportation Security Act


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Community Relationswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

  • Some activists are calling for a halt to Port growth

  • If we don’t grow responsibly, public opposition could grow

  • Infrastructure improvements depend on community support

  • All stakeholders in the supply chain must become more aware of community concerns


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6. Expansion Programswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdfMegaterminals


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Mega-Container Terminal Programwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

  • 5 Terminals

    • Each 300+ Acres

    • Piers T, A, E, G, J

  • Pier S (217 Acres)

  • North Harbor Planning Study

    • Moving Toyota to North Harbor & Expanding Pier A – current Hanjin location


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Megaterminal Program Costwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

  • Total Cost $1.9 Billion – in process of revising upward

    Does Not Include:

  • Pier W – big fill

  • North Harbor Redevelopment


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Further Landfillwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf


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TONNAGE SHARE OF U.S. CONTAINER TRADE—www.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdfNational Dredging Needs Study of U.S. Ports and Harbors: Update 2000 (USACE & DRI WEFA)


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Gerald Desmond Bridge Replacementwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

  • Est. cost: $711M (escalated$)

  • Part of I 710 Freeway expansion, 20 miles $4+ billion


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H-Tower with Straight Legswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf


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Port of Long Beachwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdfRail Master Planning Study

  • Railyard capacity model

  • Intermodal mode split analysis

  • Rail simulation model; rail LOS


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Baseline Rail Yard Projects (2020)www.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdfMega-Terminal Program

Total Cost: $293 million


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7. Environmentwww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

Port equipment alternative fuels study

Yard equipment diesel equipment reduction program

Yard equipment alternative fuels

Slow ship lanes

Cold ironing

Short line RR diesel emission reduction

Coke terminal dust control


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Marine & Locomotive Contribution to Statewide NOx Emissionswww.rutner.com/LOGT4232/slides/LOGT%204232%20Ch06%20-%20Liners.pdf

7%

6%

3%

9%

5%

5%

2000

2020

2010


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Marine & Locomotive Contribution to Statewide Diesel PM Emissions

10%

6%

10%

26%

8%

15%

2000

2020

2010


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8. Reducing Truck Impacts Emissions

Extended gate hours 15% night  40%

Virtual empty container yard (-5%)

Virtual weigh in motion

Electronic seals, RFID tags – improved

terminal/trucker communications

Additional on dock, near dock rail (-10% )

Share train yard

Shuttle trains - east and west bound, local, intermodal

SR47 (Alameda St) Truck Expressway (-7%)

I710, bridge improvements


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Port Container Traffic - EmissionsRail vs. Truck


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Agile Port Emissions

  • “Block Swap”

    Full-length trains are built at the on-dock yard, but they consist of blocks of cars (10 containers/car) each sorted for specific eastern destinations. At the inland facility, these blocks are then sorted with blocks from other trains to create destination-specific unit trains.

  • “No Sort” Shuttle Trains

    Unsorted full-length trains are built at the marine terminal. All sorting of containers into destination-specific unit trains is done at the inland facility. Requires the container to be offloaded from the inland facility to other destination specific trains.


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