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Java v. Bali JAVA 124 million Islam Dutch Colonized 1596 Gradual Colonization Kings retained Privilege & Status Extensive Inter-marriage (Dutch-Java) BALI 3.5 million Hindu Dutch Colonized 1908 Rapid Colonization Courts completely destroyed Little Inter-marriage Differences

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differences
JAVA

124 million

Islam

Dutch Colonized 1596

Gradual Colonization

Kings retained Privilege & Status

Extensive Inter-marriage (Dutch-Java)

BALI

3.5 million

Hindu

Dutch Colonized 1908

Rapid Colonization

Courts completely destroyed

Little Inter-marriage

Differences
results
Results?

Islam v. Hindu?

  • In Indonesia, gamelan music has 3 contexts.
    • Common Entertainment
    • Royal Courts
    • Temple Worship
  • Based on religion, Which do we expect to thrive in Islamic Java?
    • Entertainment & Courts
  • Based on religion, Which do we expect to thrive in Hindu Bali?
    • Entertainment, Courts & Temple Worship
results4
Results?

Slow, Long Colonization v. Rapid Violent Colonization

  • In Indonesia, gamelan music has 3 contexts.
    • Common Entertainment
    • Royal Courts
    • Temple Worship
  • Based on colonization, Which do we expect to thrive in Java?
    • Entertainment & Courts
  • Based on colonization, Which do we expect to thrive in Hindu Bali?
    • Entertainment, Temple Worship
results5
Results?
  • Both Bali and Java have Gamelan performances for Entertainment!
  • Additionally:
    • Java has Court Music
    • Bali has Temple Music
common features wayang kulit shadow puppet theater
Common Features – Wayang Kulit Shadow Puppet Theater
  • Very Popular
  • 9 Hour performances lasting until dawn
  • Stories Draw from Hindu Epics Mahabharata & Ramayana
    • With more than 74,000 verses, long prose passages, and some 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is arguably the longest epic poem in the world
  • Standard Character Types. Differentiated by iconography, type of voice, speech patterns, stance and movement.
      • Gods: speaking sanskrit
      • Heros: Speaking an archaic form of Javanese no longer spoke except in public settings
      • Demons: Speaking low Javanese
      • Clows (punakawan): Speaking modern Javanese
clows punakawan
Clows (punakawan):
  • Very Important character role
  • Invented at least 1000 years ago
  • Function is to comment on current events and relate the epic poem to contemporary life
wayang kulit performance video
Wayang Kulit Performance (Video)
  • Screen in the middle of the room
  • Actor/musicians behind the screen
  • Audience all around (in front & behind)
  • Performances are not rehearsed but rely on context specific cues between the musicians and puppet master (dhalang)

Rebab

differences court v temple
Differences (Court v. Temple)
  • Javanese Court (Stately, Formal)
  • Balinese Temple (Energetic, Vibrant)

Java Video

observations
Observations?
  • Two components to performance
    • Melody (Suling)
    • Rhythmic Punctuation (Colotomy)
  • Javanese Society & Music is Hierarchical. What instruments seem to hold primary roles?
other factors influencing javanese gamelan
Other Factors Influencing Javanese Gamelan

Chronological Progression

  • Influx of Music from the West
  • Influx of Ideas from West (growing mixed population)
  • Java becomes Eclectic (as part of the Dutch East Indies)
  • Debates of Nationalism Rage (early 20th c)
  • Independence 1949
slide12
Intellectuals choose not to support all gamelan. But that which symbolically represented the strongest icon of old Java- The Courts! The music of the courts was a bit slower than other styles, a bit less dynamic. And very clear in its hierarchical structure!
  • And within this most courtly of styles. The symbolism that a that the large Gong was the King, the Kempul represented members of the royal family, the kenong, ministers and so on down the line. Because this symbolism is so essential to the survival of the gamelan in Java—Where symbolisms of this nature existed throughout all gamelan—emphasis on this aesthetic arose.
bali video
Bali -- Video

Style: Baris (warriors’ drill)

  • Ritualistic style of dance that depicts the activities of an ancient kingdom
  • The dance depicts valor.
  • Draws upon the Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana
  • Tries to depict one of the epic Hero and tries to express the hero’s bravery and vigor.

NOTE:

  • 1) The close correspondence between the dancers movements and the music.
  • 2) The dynamic and dramatic nature of this music from Bali when compared to the music of Java.
gendhing and colotomy
Gendhing and Colotomy
  • Gendhing: piece of music
    • Balungan (Core melody)
    • Gongan (Gong cycle)
  • Colotomy: structure of punctuation, emphasis
  • Cyclic structure outlined by gong
colotomy bubaran
Colotomy “Bubaran”
  • Kethuk (t)
  • Kenong (N)
  • Kempul (P)
  • Gong (G)

Rest (w)

slide18
3—20-02, 4-01-02
  • 1:50 Baris
  • 1:25 Kebyar Trompong
  • The cak chorus now usually accompanies dance scenes from the Rāmāyana, with the chorus likened to the monkey army that aids Rama in his efforts to save his wife Sita and defeat her abductor, the lustful and impulsive ogre-king Rawana. The addition of the dance was inspired by German artist and musician Walter Spies in the 1930s.
music meaning
Music & Meaning
  • What does this phrase imply: “Music has Meaning?”
  • Music and Power
  • Does music have “power”?
    • If it has “power,” music has the ability to make things happen.
  • How does music get power/meaning?
music and meaning
Music and Meaning
  • Delivered via Metaphor
  • What is a Metaphor?
  • Something which stands for something else.
  • Iconicity is the perceived “naturalness” of a metaphor
music and meaning22
Music and Meaning
  • Instruments
    • Construction, Design, Materials
    • Non-Indonesian Examples?
      • Japanese Shinto Buddhist example – Instruments in their natural state.
      • Chinese Classification (8 elements)
      • Malaysian Bamboo Stampers
      • Others?
instruments design materials construction indonesia java
Instruments (Design, Materials, Construction)Indonesia - Java
  • Through homologous associations with autochthonous energies of nature, gong ensembles and their music became metaphors for natural forces and became the instruments for the control of natural forces.
instruments design materials construction indonesia java24
Instruments (Design, Materials, Construction)Indonesia - Java
  • Materials
    • Miner – Disturbs the elemental forces of the earth, removes a piece of its body
      • Malayan Miners
      • Gods older than Bhudda, Hindu gods or Allah
      • Muslim prayer is considered an affront.
  • Construction
    • Blacksmith – Does magic. Makes something beautiful from something raw. Does what the earth can do, but better and faster. Imitates the power of the volcano.
    • Time, energy, cooperation, art/science
      • Autochthonous – 35 Active Volcanoes on Java
      • Agung = Gong , Gunung = Mountain
instruments design materials construction indonesia java25
Instruments (Design, Materials, Construction)Indonesia - Java
  • Design
    • Sakti = Female Power
    • Two large Gongs (One male, one female)
    • Two rows of Bonang (One male, one female)
    • Possessing a gamelan, gives the owner Kesaktian. That is, they have a balance of female and male power. (And therefore the power to rule)
    • “Tunedness”
      • Old time metaphors?
      • Modern Metaphors?
  • video
slide26
Where else do we find Meaning in Music? Besides Instrument
    • Performance Practice (Structural, Contextual)
    • Sounds (Form, Melody, Harmony, Texture, Timbre)
performance practice structural contextual
Performance Practice (Structural, Contextual)

Context

  • Location of the Ensembles (e.g. Courts in Java)
  • Hierarchical position of performers

Structure

  • Unique tuning for each ensemble
  • Hierarchy of Instruments
what of performance practice from other asian cultures
What of Performance Practice from other Asian Cultures?

Malaysia?

  • Women Play the bamboo? Men Stand and Sing?
  • Women sing the Chorus?
  • Men join the Women for the Chorus during key moments!
musical sounds form melody harmony timbre texture
Musical Sounds (Form, Melody, Harmony, Timbre, Texture)
  • What is the most important musical element in Javanese/Balinese Gamelan?
  • FORM!
  • Cyclic, Colotomic (type of texture)
  • “Through homologous associations with autochthonous energies of nature, gong ensembles and their music became metaphors for natural forces and became the instruments for the control of natural forces.”
cycles of coincidence in java and bali
Cycles of Coincidence in Java and Bali
  • Perceived in
    • Life (reincarnation)
    • Agriculture
    • Time
    • Cosmos
    • Calendar
    • Language
    • Music
slide34
They use the Gregorian for official and international dating, the Saka, or moon calendar, and the Pakuwon cycle of 210 days for ceremonies and festivals, which does not count years.
slide39
n general there has been a tendency to adapt highly sacred dances for more secular contexts such as tourist performances; examples of these are kecak,legong, baris and topeng (for details of accompanying ensembles, see §(iii) above).
  • cak (kecak, in which a chorus of men sitting cross-legged in concentric circles shout rapid interlocking syllables and sing in imitation of Balinese gamelan sounds). The cak chorus now usually accompanies dance scenes from the Rāmāyana, with the chorus likened to the monkey army that aids Rama in his efforts to save his wife Sita and defeat her abductor, the lustful and impulsive ogre-king Rawana. The addition of the dance was inspired by German artist and musician Walter Spies in the 1930s.
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