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Global warming Disease problems and health hazards Bureau of Emerging Infectious Diseases http://beid . ddc . moph . go . th Department of Disease Control Ministry of Public Health, Thailand What is “Global Warming”? Global warming : An increase in the average

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Global warming

Disease problems and health hazards

Bureau of Emerging Infectious Diseases

http://beid.ddc.moph.go.th

Department of Disease Control

Ministry of Public Health, Thailand


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What is “Global Warming”?

  • Globalwarming : An increase in the average

    temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, esp. a sustained increase sufficient to cause climatic change.

  • Climate change: a change

    of climate which is attributed

    directly or indirectly to human

    activity that alters the

    composition of the global

    atmosphere and which is in

    addition to natural climate variability

    observed over comparable time periods(source : UNFCCC)


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Did you know …?

  • 18heat waves were reported in India within 10 yrs. (1980-1998)

  • In 1998 and 2003, China reported deaths over 4,000 cases from flash floods.

  • In 2001, heat waves in Bangladesh caused deaths among metal workers and rickshaw pullers due to heat stroke.

  • 2004 : Japan crashed by 10 Typhoons.

ที่มา : WHO


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Did you know that…?

  • 2004 : Philippines reported devastated area with more than 10,000 deaths from Typhoons and Topical storm.

  • In 2005, floods in Rajasthan and droughts in northeast India.

  • Thailand hitted by unusual droughts in 63 provinces with 9.2 million population effected.

Source: Greenpeace


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Did you know that …?

  • In 2006 : Bhutan reported loss of life from flash floods and landslides due to melting of glaciers

Source : Basuki; www.who.int/phe

ที่มา : WHO


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Did you know that …?

  • In 2007 : 4 Monsoon depressions double the normal number caused severe floods in Bangladesh, India and Nepal causing death, loss of livelihood and displacement of millions.


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2001 : over 45% of tourist resorts in the Maldives reported Beach Erosion

In Indonesia, cases of dengue fever have risen by 50%between 2006-07 due to temperature increases

Did you know that …?

Source: Dr. Chirapol Sintunawa

Source: WHO


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Did you know that …?

  • The glaciers in the Himalayas are melting rapidly. The Himalayas contribute crucially to the water supply of 1.3 billions people, feeding into nine of Asia’s greatest rivers.

Tiger habitat in Bangladesh

faces threats from the rise

in sea level

Photo: @ Abir Abdullah / Still Pictures Photo: www.allposters.com

ที่มา : WHO


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India 2005: Unusual floods destroy train bridge: over 120 killed, hundreds injured

floods, storms, cyclones and fires

India 2005: Unusual rains in Chennai


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Strong Global Warming Observed killed, hundreds injured

Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures since 1850-2007

Increased of temperatures in two decades average by 0.5°C

Average global temperature is expected to rise by 0.2 degrees Celsius per decade over the next 100 years

Source:


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Antarctic and Arctic Ice Melting killed, hundreds injured

West

sheet

East

sheet


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Sea level is projected to rise by 9.88 cm. by 2100 killed, hundreds injured

  • Increasing sea-levels

  • Strong wind


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How do people produce “Global Warming”? killed, hundreds injured

  • Mainly in burning of fossil fuel since mid-18th century due to industrialization.

  • Releasing of carbon dioxide from incineration of waste and electricity generation.


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Photo: Basuki; www.who.int/phe killed, hundreds injured

Source: www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/


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Greenhouse Gases killed, hundreds injured

Combustion of fossil fuels and forest fires

Water vapor

Protective layer in the upper atmosphere from UV radiation. If excessive produced caused air pollution such as smog & fog

Combustion of fossil fuels andploughing farm soils

Use of refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol sprayand cleaning agents cause depletion of atmospheric ozone layer

Animal husbandry, irrigated agriculture and oil extraction

7-11-2007

ดร. จิรพล สินธุนาวา

15

Modified from Dr. Chirapol Sinthunawa


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Loaded greenhouse gases by man-made at atmosphere killed, hundreds injured

CH4 released from paddy field, animal husbandry and landfills

Emitted CO2by burning fossil fuels for power and by deforestation

…and “climate change” is happening!!

“ Global climate change is happening !”

Source : IPCC


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CO killed, hundreds injured2 levels will arise another twice times by the year 2100.


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USA, Saudi Arabia released highest CO2 per head of population in the world.

Thailand



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CFCs population in the world(Chlorofluorocarbon)


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The Vienna Convention for population in the worldthe Protection of the Ozone Layer

In 1981 the United Nations Environment Organization has established the legal and technical working group for drafting to achieve agreements in international treaties to resolve the damage called the Vienna Convention on ozone layer protection.

Contains a pledge to cooperate in research and surveillance data exchange volumeEmissions and destroy the ozone layer as well as control the operation of the Convention to the future with the Vienna Convention

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer adopted in March 1985, entered into force, 1988 by 28 countries

Source:Hazardous Substances Control Bureau


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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

To have negotiated the draft regulations and measures to prevent the destruction of the ozone layer under the Vienna Convention, which the draft was completed in the short time on 16 September 1987 at City Diamond Three Seasons of Canada in 47 countries worldwide,entered into force, 1989

Currently, 184countries around the world have jointly ratified the Vienna Conventionincluded Thailand

16 September is an Ozone Day


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Thailand's role Layer

  • Must take steps to reduce and stop using the substances in accordance with the specified period.

  • Must report the amount of controlled substance to UNEP who serves as the Secretariat of the Protocol.

  • Department of Industrial Works Ministry of Industry as the primary agency responsible conducted studies in amount of substances destroying the ozone layer in different industry sectors and the import volume controls destroying substances.

  • National Plan of Thailand: to stop using substances that destroy the ozone layer and prepared for the period of disuse substances destroying the ozone layer.


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Globalization Layer

Pop. Growth &

Urbanization

Global warming

Deforestation

& others

factors

Industrialization

& trade


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What if…Climate Change? Layer

  • Increasing sea-levels

  • Increasing Strong wind

Photo: www.allposters.com

Increasing sea-levels will lead to costal erosion

Photo: @ Greenpeace/Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert


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Changes in the Claciers at Shrong Himal, Nepal over 26 years Layer

Source : Nagoya University, http://snowman.hyarc.nagoya-u.ac.jp



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Vector-borne diseases: Layer

Weather events VS Impacts on human health (1)

Heat stroke,

Respiratory dis.

Cardio-vascular

illness

Heat waves / air pollution

Warmer temp. & disturbed rainfall patterns


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สำนักโรคติดต่ออุบัติใหม่ กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

Changes in climate may alter the distribution of important vector species and may increase the spread of disease.


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Water กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข/ food-borne diseases: cholera, harmful algae bloom, etc.

Weather events VS Impacts on human health (2)

Heavy precipitation events

Malnutrition

& Starvation

Psychosocial

Stress

Droughts


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Marine HABs: Toxins & Toxicity กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

Diarrheic, Paralytic, Neurotoxic, Amnestic shellfish poison, Ciguatera fish poison (DSP, PSP, NSP, ASP, CFP)

Freshwater HABs Toxins

Hepatoxins, Neurotoxins

All are blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)

Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) & Global warming

Expansion of water surface

Warmers temp & longer duration

Tendency to be toxic strains

“Especially temperate zone”


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Harmful algal bloom กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

Harmful algal bloom ;Florida


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  • Death, Injuries กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

  • Damage infrastructure

  • Diseases related to extreme climates eg. Leptospirosis

  • Social problems

  • Psychosocial Stress

Weather events VS Impacts on human health (3)

Cyclones, Storms, flooding

  • Disappearance of Land

  • Migration

  • Social conflict

  • Stress

Sea level rise & Coastal storms


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Projected impacts of global warming in Asia (1) กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

  • Glacier melt in the Himalayas is projected to increase flooding, rock avalanches from destabilised slopes, and affect water resources within the next two to three decades. This will be followed by decreased river flows as the glaciers recede.

  • Freshwater availability in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia particularly in large river basins is projected to decrease due to climate change which, along with population growth and increasing demand arising from higher standards of living, could adversely affect more than a billion people.

Source: IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report, April 2007


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Projected impacts of global warming in Asia (2) กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

  • Coastal areas, especially heavily-populated mega-delta regions in South, East and Southeast Asia, will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea and in some mega-deltas flooding from the rivers.

  • Climate change is projected to impinge on sustainable development of most developing countries of Asia as it compounds the pressures on natural resources and the environment associated with rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, and economic development.

Source: IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report, April 2007


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Projected impacts of global warming in Asia (3) กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

  • Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal disease primarily associated with floods and droughts are expected to rise in East, South and Southeast Asia due to projected changes in hydrological cycle associated with global warming.

  • Increases in coastal water temperature would exacerbate the abundance and/or toxicity of cholera in South Asia.

Source: IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report, April 2007


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Projected impacts of global warming in Asia กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข

It is projected that crop yields could increase up to 20% in East and Southeast Asia while it could decrease up to 30% in Central and South Asia by the mid 21 st century. Taken together and considering the influence of rapid population growth and urbanization, the risk of hunger is projected to remain very high in several developing countries.


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ธารน้ำแข็งหิมาลัยในเอเชียมีอัตราการละลายเร็วที่สุด ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ


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Southeast Asia if West sheet melted (17-foot rise) ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Source: Dr. Chirapol Sintunawa 12-10-2007


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Climate Change: Study Impact ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆto Thailand

Climate change tend to be :

higher and longer temperatures BUT not dryness

  • Slightly increasing temperature around 1-2 °C

  • Summer season will be longer 1-2 months

  • Winter season will be shorter 1-2 months

  • Rainy season remains unchanged BUTwater volume will increase 10-20%

  • Uncertain season interval changed dramatically ( Extreme scenario )

What if Climate Change effected Thailand?

Encourage to conduct various of continued-studies and brain storming


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Where are we now ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ?

  • Joined the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC) .

  • Non-Annex1 categories : without commitment to reduced greenhouse gases.

  • Release greenhouse gases in small proportion compared to other countries

  • Nevertheless Global climate change impact in countryclimate change too.


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Copenhagen Summit, ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆthe 17th anniversary of the climate7-18 December 2009Copenhagen Denmark

Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, Prime Minister and Dr. Khunying Kalaya Sophonpanich, Minster of Science and Technology participated the meeting on global warming in Copenhagen,organized by UNFCC At

to solve global warming


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Remains unclear to reduce ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

greenhouse gas emissions

Control Global Temperature not to increase over 2 degrees C in averageto seriously reduce global climate change

BUT

Searching for consensus To reduce greenhouse gas

To defined framework and time frame in the preparation of new treaties.


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Impacts in Thailand ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Sea Level

Increasing sea-levels approximately 0.09 – 0.88 meters will lead to costal erosion.

Gulf of Thailand Erosion crisis worse than the Andaman Sea; six areas crisis included Bangkok, Rayong, Petchaburi down to Narathivas


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Bangkhunthien coast ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆal water erosion

30-10-2007

ดร.จิรพล สินธุนาวา

46


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Floods ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Within 3 decades, country severely affected by climate change in the frequency of extreme weather events result Floods and storms, especially in eastern coastal lines and southern area near the ocean as well as Bangkok, Hadyai and Chiangmai.

Climate change may also affect diseases spread both human and animal/plants delta regions


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Land Slide ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Flash Floods


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Drought ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Drought occurs in summer caused dryness reservoir, reduced crop yields.

Dryness affecting in crops produced caused farmers stress


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Fog and Forest Fires ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Long term high temperature has been rise in key air pollutants causes respiratory diseases.


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Temperature ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Climate Change lead to variation in average country temperatures caused many hot days, heat waves continuity and flash floods and storm.

Urban heat island: temperature in urban higher than in rural both day and night time and every seasons.

Needs of power: for air-conditioning and refrigerators caused to massive electricity producing which effected to loss of water and dryness in summer.


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Electricity Consumed Comparison: ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆUsing Electricity Volume of 3 Department Stores = using volume of population in Province

Million unit

Siam Paragon

Mae Hong Son

123

Amnat Charoen.

Mukdahan

Nong Bua Lam Phu

Nan

Yasothon

MBK

Uthai Thani

81

Phayao

279

Million unit

Mukdahan

Satun

Samut Songkhram

Loei

Central World

75

Phrae

Phatthalung

Narathiwat

Ranong

Source :Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand


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CO2 Release from Power used in 2006 ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆBy economy category

PetroleumCoal

Other energy

Electricity

Electricity 40%

Industry

Business.

Transport

Home residents

Agriculture / Construction / Mining.

Source : Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand


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Global Warming is Fever. ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Who is getting alert?

Be aware but not scared


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Hospital plan ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ?

What you can do now?

2 basis : mitigation and adaptation

  • Mitigation : Use less energy and conserve more of it

  • Adaptation : Adjustment of public health response

  • Other strategies: Tree planting campaign, Kick start an environmental campaign etc.

26 Sep 08


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How is the Hadyai hospital doing ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ?


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Appointed working group ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Red Shirt Team (year 2)

Yellow Shirt Team (year3)


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Kettle ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

How to save energy?

►Keep water in enough for a day used

►Do not plug in prior to using**

►Unplug after use immediately


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Ophthalmology Ward ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

- Unplug when unused


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Reduced Global Temperature ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Preparedness

Surviellance/ Laboratory

Disease Control/ Changed behaviour

Investigation and clinical management

Health education

Public Health Emergency Response

Clean water

Quality control of sewage and pollution

Study on changing of human behavior

Capacity Building focus on Public Health personnel

Applied public Health Method and Technologies such as Green building, Vaccines

Challenge: health impact of climate change


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Monitor ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Clinicians

Diagnose

Researchers

Teachers/Mentors

  • Clinical Treatment

  • Strictly follow guideline forIC, PPE

  • Logistic preparation

  • Diagnosis / Surveillance

  • Clinical Finding,

  • Epidemiology,Laboratory

Role

Of Medical team

to

EID / PHER

  • Reporting on time

  • Encourage team

  • Alerting Message

  • Supervise team and health

  • education to population

  • Selected key message

  • Quality assurance

  • Collecting, Recording,

  • Analyze and report

  • Updating new knowledge


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Conclusion ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ(1)

  • Now the world is changing in many directions.

  • Climate change and global warming caused public health problem and diseases outbreak in the world.

  • Thailand should prepare for respond to Communicable diseases /Infectious diseases and other new/re-emerging diseases for example;

    • Vector-Borne Disease; hemorrhagic fever, Malaria, Japanese encephalitis, Elephantiasis

    • Food and water Borne Diseases; Diarrhea, Food Poisoning, Hepatitis

    • Respiratory Diseases; Influenza

    • Emerging and re-emerging Diseases; Avian Influenza, Nipah and Westnile

    • Infectious Diseases from Natural Disaster Impact


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Conclusion (2) ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ

Preparedness concepts

  • Strengthen and Development of public Health System

  • Surveillance and Rapid Response

  • Enhancement of capacity building and knowledge

  • Strengthen multi-sectoral collaboration and network


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Sawasdee ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ


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Back up slides ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆ


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ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆคาร์บอนเครดิต” สินค้าตัวใหม่จากประเทศกำลังพัฒนา

  • Carbon Credit คือ ปริมาณก๊าซเรือนกระจก ที่ลดได้จากกิจกรรมของมนุษย์

  • เป็นเครื่องมือสำคัญในพิธีสารเกียวโต (Kyoto Protocol)

  • โดยกำหนดให้ประเทศพัฒนาแล้ว 41 ประเทศ ลดการปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกอย่างน้อย 5% เมื่อเทียบกับปี 2533 ภายในปี 2555


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ฉลากคาร์บอน ( ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆCarbon Label) ทางเลือกใหม่เพื่อลดภาวะโลกร้อน

  • ฉลากคาร์บอน : ฉลากที่แสดงระดับการลดการปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกออกสู่บรรยากาศต่อหน่วยผลิตภัณฑ์

  • เราทุกคนล้วนมีส่วนร่วมในฐานะผู้ก่อปัญหาภาวะโลกร้อนผ่านการใช้ทรัพยากรและพลังงานรูปแบบต่างๆ เพื่อดำเนินกิจวัตรประจำวันอย่างหลีกเลี่ยงไม่ได้

  • ทางเลือกหนึ่งเพื่อชดเชยสิ่งที่คุณทำ คือ การเลือกซื้อสินค้าที่มีการปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกน้อย หรือสินค้าที่มี “ฉลากคาร์บอน”


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แหล่งข้อมูลเรื่อง ปัจจุบันจึงบางลงมากกว่าธารน้ำแข็งอื่นๆGlobal Warming

  • องค์การบริหารจัดการก๊าซเรือนกระจก (องค์การมหาชน) ; www.tgo.or.th

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ; www.ipcc.ch/

  • World Health Organization ; www.searo.who.int


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