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Differential (Casual-comparative) Research. Definition – Research design in which behavior is measured in 2 groups that differ on 1 primary variable. The “IV” (not true IV) is the ________ or ______variable Classification variable is not manipulated because it is _______ or ___________

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Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

Definition – Research design in which behavior is measured in 2 groups that differ on 1 primary variable.

  • The “IV” (not true IV) is the ________ or ______variable

  • Classification variable is not manipulated because it is _______or___________

    • Normal adults vs. psychopaths

    • history of abuse vs. no history

    • Males vs. females

    • heroine abusers vs. polydrug abusers

      Does Group A differ from Group B on measures of the DV?


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Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

Intact Group of Participants

Intact Group of Participants

Measurement of the Dependent Variable

Measurement of the Dependent Variable


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Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

Does ____ demonstrate a causal relationship

  • There is no guarantee that the two groups will be ______________ in all other ways.

  • There may be ________________ explanations for the observed differences.

    e.g., kids who play sports vs. those who don’t – compare measures of academic success.


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Conducting differential (causal-comparative research

  • Select groups that vary on __ quantifiable variable

    • Requires ________ definitions

    • Matching participants – equate groups on ______________factors

    • Select _____________ groups – more likely to see difference in variable of interest


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Two groups that differ on some dimension

10 children w/severe behavior problems

10 children w/no behavior problems

Compare the two groups

Avg. IQ = 103

Avg. IQ = 104

Avg. # hobbies = 4

Avg. # hobbies = 3

Avg. # siblings = 4

Avg. # siblings = 1

History of abuse = 6/10

History of abuse = 3/10

Relationship?


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Two groups that differ on some dimension

20 smokers

20 nonsmokers

Compare the two groups

Ed. = High school

Ed. = High school

Avg. # drinks/day =

2

Avg. # drink/day =

3

15/20 single

5/20 married

3/20 single

17/20 married

Relationship?


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Developmental Research Designs – study age-related changes in behavior

Cross-sectional research design

  • Measure a variable in different ___________

  • Like a ____________ group design

  • Cannot determine how any ___________ changes

  • Other factors may influence groups other than age (______/_____________ effects)

Age group 1

e.g., 2-3

Age group 2

e.g., 4-5

Age group 3

e.g., 6-7


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