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Using MIS 2e Chapter 4 Hardware and Software. David Kroenke. 09/16 – 6:00AM. Study Questions. Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware? Q2 – How much does hardware cost? Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

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David kroenke

Using MIS 2e Chapter 4 Hardware and Software

David Kroenke

09/16 – 6:00AM

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Study questions
Study Questions

  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q1 what does a manager need to know about computer hardware
Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Hardware includes the electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software.

Fig 4-1 Examples of the basic components of a computer

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q1 what does a manager need to know about computer hardware1
Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Computers use binary digits, or bits, to represent data. Each bit is either a zero or a one. This is why all data must be explicitly defined or have a numeric value.

Fig 4-4 Bits are Easy to Represent Physically

Electronic Signals – Wired or Wireless

MagneticMedia – Hard Drives

CD’s & DVDs

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q1 what does a manager need to know about computer hardware2
Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Regardless of whether computer data are numbers, alphabetic characters, or photos, they are merely a collection of bits.

Fig 4-5 Important Storage-Capacity Terminology

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q1 what does a manager need to know about computer hardware3
Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • The first step a computer uses to run a program is to transfer code from a storage disk, such as a hard drive, to its main memory.

  • The second step is to move a program instruction contained within the transferred code, like Open File, from the main memory into the CPU by using a data channel, also called a bus.

  • The cache memory, part of the CPU, stores frequently used instructions to help speed up processing.

  • The operating system (OS), such as Windows, controls a computer’s resources. Small blocks of instructions from the OS are stored temporarily in the main memory.

  • Since the main memory is too small to hold all the program code for the operating system and application programs, a computer uses memory swapping to move instructions in and out of main memory.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q1 what does a manager need to know about computer hardware4
Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

Major Actor

Paging

Fig 4-6 Computer Components in Use

San Francisco

Quitman

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q1 what does a manager need to know about computer hardware5
Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • You, as a manager, need to care how computers work because there are so many options to choose from when you’re selecting hardware components. At some point in your career, you may be part of the selection process for new computer equipment.

  • Effective managers make sure computers match employee tasks and requirements. This attention to detail reduces employee frustration and improves productivity.

  • There are two types of memory:

    • Volatile memory describes cache and main memory, which are like light bulbs. When power is turned off to the light bulb, the light disappears. When power is turned off to the computer, any data in the volatile memory are lost.

    • Nonvolatile memory describes magnetic and optical disks. When the power is turned off, the data remain safely stored because the bits are physically embedded in the surface of the media.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q2 how much does hardware cost
Q2 – How much does hardware cost? hardware?

  • Your purchasing decision will focus on options such as:

    • A laptop or a desktop

    • CPU speed and cache memory size

    • Main memory speed and size

    • The type of magnetic disk that best meets your needs based on several factors like rotational delay and seek time.

    • The type of optical disks that you need to complete your tasks. CD or DVD optical disk? Or both?

    • The type of video display that best meets your needs. Will you purchase a CRT monitor or an LCD monitor?

    • Choosing the type of network access you’ll purchase depends on the type of network you have available.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q2 how much does hardware cost1
Q2 – How much does hardware cost? hardware?

Test Items

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q2 how much does hardware cost2
Q2 – How much does hardware cost? hardware?

  • This figure shows how data are recorded on magnetic disks.

Fig 4-8 Magnetic Disk Components

Rotational Delay Time

Seek Time

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q2 how much does hardware cost3
Q2 – How much does hardware cost? hardware?

Test Items

  • All monitors use pixels, small spots on the screen, to create displays. The quality of a CRT monitor is measured by its dot pitch. An LCD monitor’s quality is measured in pixel pitch.

  • LCD monitors provide a choice of signal interfaces. VGA is older technology while DVI is a newer technology that provides a higher quality image.

  • Each monitor has an optimal resolution based on the screen size and the dot or pixel pitch.

  • Computers use a special CPU and a video processor to store and process images.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q2 how much does hardware cost4
Q2 – How much does hardware cost? hardware?

  • Printers can be shared among many workers or limited to personal access.

  • Mobile devices are becoming a must in today’s connected world. You should match the device to the type of work the employee does.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q3 what is the difference between a client and a server
Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server? hardware?

  • Because client-server processing is becoming the norm it’s important to understand how it works.

    • A client computer is used for word processing, spreadsheets, or email – end user software. The client computer also contains an operating system with software to enable the client to connect to a network like the Internet or a company-based private network.

    • A server computer provides some kind of service to the client. It can be email, Web sites, or database access. The server operating system is not designed to run end-user software. Its purpose is to provide the client with services.

    • Even though servers are just another type of computer, they have multiple CPUs, lots of main memory, and very large storage disks.

    • Large Web sites use server farms to help process millions of transactions and activities in a coordinated fashion.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q3 what is the difference between a client and a server1
Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server? hardware?

Fig 4-11 Client & Server Computers

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

  • There are two types of computer software.

    • Operating system software (client or server) controls computer resources. It’s hardware specific and includes a specific instruction set based on the computer’s processor. Windows XP and Windows server are examples.

    • Application program software helps users accomplish tasks like word processing or database management. Programs such as Microsoft Word or Excel examples. They are stored and run on client computers.

Fig 4-13 Categories of Computer Software

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software1
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

Test Items

  • There are four major types of operating system software: Mac, Linux, Unix, and Windows. Each one uses a specific instruction set, has common applications, and is targeted towards a typical user.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software2
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

  • Managers can choose from three basic categories of application software programs for their information systems.

    • Horizontal-market applications are common across all organizations and industries. Microsoft Office and Adobe Acrobat are examples.

    • Vertical-market applications serve a specific industry like medical records processing and bill-of-materials.

    • One-of-a-kind applications are created for a specific, unique need. The IRS’s software for processing tax returns is an example.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software3
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

  • Once managers decide on the category of application software they need, they must decide how they’ll acquire the programs. They can choose from

    • Off-the-shelf software that users must accept “as is.” It’s generally used for horizontal applications.

    • Off-the-shelf with alterations software allows some changes in the code to fit a business’s needs. It’s used for vertical applications.

    • Custom-developed software is created for a particular business or set of users. It’s used for one-of-a-kind applications.

    • Firmware is special software installed in devices like PDAs or cell phones. It uses read-only memory on the device.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software4
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

Fig 4-15 Software Sources and Types

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software5
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

  • Client-server applications require software code on both the client computer and the server computer. The difference between a thin client and a thick client is decided by the amount of software required on the client computer.

    • A thin client application only requires a browser such as Internet Explorer. Accessing a Web site is an example of a thin client application. A thin client program is preferable because it doesn’t require extra software. But a thin client does add to the work of the network, the server operating system, and the hardware

    • A thick client requires software programs in addition to a browser to function. Using Mozilla Thunderbird email is an example of a thick client application. Thick client software usually provides more features and functions but the client hardware has to have the performance capability to handle the increased work.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q4 what does a manager need to know about software6
Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software? hardware?

Fig 4-16 Thin and Thick Clients

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q5 how much does software cost
Q5 – How much does software cost? hardware?

  • Managers should make software purchasing decisions based on the type of software and the functions that employees need to accomplish their tasks.

    • Some software programs require a company to purchase a site license that allows all its computers to run the program.

    • An upgrade adds new features and functions to existing programs and is less costly than a new software license.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q5 how much does software cost1
Q5 – How much does software cost? hardware?

  • Managers choose server and clientoperating system software based on organizational policy.

  • Managers choose horizontal-market client software based on organizational policy and the components employees need for their jobs.

  • Managers choose vertical-market software based on job category needs.

  • It is illegal and highly unethical to use software without proper licenses. Don’t go there in your job – it is not cool. This is a bad example for your subordinates and gets you committed to an illegal activity with your peers and boss.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q5 how much does software cost2
Q5 – How much does software cost? hardware?

Fig 4-17 Client Software Prices

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q6 what are viruses trojan horses and worms
Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms? hardware?

  • Here are some terms and definitions users should be familiar with to help protect computers from harm.

    • Viruses are computer programs that replicate themselves and may rob computer resources of meaningful work.

    • A payload is virus program code that can alter or delete programs or data in a computer.

    • A Trojan horse is a type of virus that masquerades as a useful program or file even though it may be damaging the computer’s programs or data.

    • Macro viruses spread by attaching themselves to common application files like Word or Excel. When an infected file is opened, the virus places destructive code in the startup files of the application and spreads from there.

    • A worm is a type of virus that propagates by using networks to spread from one computer to another.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q6 what are viruses trojan horses and worms1
Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms? hardware?

  • Here are some ways users can prevent viruses and shield computers from harm.

    • Patches are modifications that fix known problems in a program’s code. Users should periodically check for patches from software manufacturers and download and install them immediately.

    • Antivirus programs search a computer’s memory and storage disks for known viruses and delete them when they’re found. Users should periodically download updates to antivirus programs since new viruses are continually introduced to networks.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q6 what are viruses trojan horses and worms2
Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms? hardware?

  • Other steps users can take to help prevent viruses include:

    • Never download programs or data from unknown Web sites.

    • Do not open email attachments from strangers.

    • Do not open unexpected email attachments.

    • Do not rely on file extensions to be honest.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


  • Q1 – What does a manager need to know about computer hardware?

  • Q2 – How much does hardware cost?

  • Q3 – What is the difference between a client and a server?

  • Q4 – What does a manager need to know about software?

  • Q5 – How much does software cost?

  • Q6 – What are viruses, Trojan horses, and worms?

  • Q7 – How can you use this knowledge?

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q7 how can you use this knowledge
Q7 – How can you use this knowledge? hardware?

  • The type of buying decisions you may make as a business manager depends on the size of your organization and the type of hardware and software your employees need.

Fig 4-18 Business Mgr’s Role in Hardware & Software Specifications

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q7 how can you use this knowledge1
Q7 – How can you use this knowledge? hardware?

  • Here is the process you should use to create a computer budget for your department or business.

    • First you need to establish your base requirements by

      • Assessing thetype of work your employees perform and categorizing each job.

      • Determining thecomputer workload requirements for each category.

      • Then, deciding what yourhardware and software requirements are for the computer workload requirements for each category of worker.

© Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


Q7 how can you use this knowledge2
Q7 – How can you use this knowledge? hardware?

  • Once you’ve established your base requirements you need to forecast changes in

    • Employees

    • Workload

    • Department task assignments

    • Upgrade requirements

  • Using your base requirements and change forecasts, you can prepare a budget that includes hardware and software prices based on organizational requirements and practices. Don’t forget potential overhead fees for operating and maintaining networks, servers, and communication equipment.

  • Assess your proposed budget for feasibility and reasonability according to your organization’s competitive strategy. You may have to prepare justifications for your budget decisions.

  • The last step is to document the results of your efforts for later use.

  • © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


    Q7 how can you use this knowledge3
    Q7 – How can you use this knowledge? hardware?

    Fig 4-19 Process for Preparing a Departmental IT Budget

    © Pearson Prentice Hall 2009


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