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Colonial Legacies . Monday : RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM Wednesday : THE FORMATION OF NEW IDENTITIES. RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM. Always ask: Why did certain types of responses emerge? What responses were possible?. CRITICAL ISSUES. What is the Nature of Western Power?

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Colonial legacies

Colonial Legacies

Monday:

RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

Wednesday:

THE FORMATION OF NEW IDENTITIES


Responses to european imperialism
RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

Always ask:

Why did certain types of responses emerge? What responses were possible?


Critical issues
CRITICAL ISSUES

  • What is the Nature of Western Power?

  • Does response require Westernization?

  • Is Westernization simply technology transfer, or more?

  • How does Westernization affect ways of life, values, beliefs?


Types of responses
TYPES OF RESPONSES

  • Rebelling/Wars of Resistance

  • Investigating and Adapting

  • Embracing

  • Rejecting

  • Fusing & Resisting


Rebelling resistance

Western Imperialism in China to 1842-1912

Rebelling/Resistance

  • Goals

    • Open China to Western Commercial Penetration

    • Alter Chinese Diplomatic Forms

    • Legalize Opium Trade

  • Method

    • Warfare (Opium Wars, Gunboat Diplomacy)

    • Military Garrisons

    • Imposition of Unequal Treaties, Treaty Ports


Rebelling resistance1
Rebelling/Resistance

Treaty Ports = Tiny enclaves of foreign influence and government located in coastal and eastern China.

--After 1860, foreigners legally free to travel.

-- Missionaries had the right to work, live, own, or lease property anywhere.

-- Extraterritoriality: exempt from Chinese law


Rebelling/Resistance

Boxer Uprising 1900

What?

  • Popular uprising – farmers & laborers

  • Martial arts, magic charms vs. Gatling gun

Method:

Attack missions, legations

Destroy railroads and telegraph

Outcome:

Invasion, Retribution, crippling of government


Never forget national humiliation wall old summer palace beijing p r china

Legacy

“Never Forget National Humiliation” Wall, Old Summer Palace, Beijing, P.R.China


Rebelling/Resistance

  • Physical Rebellion

    From First Opium War in China (1839) to the Fifth Ashanti War in West Africa (1901):

    British Forces carried out over 220 military actions in Africa, Asia, and on Pacific Islands.


Rebelling/Resistance

US Pacific Empire

  • "Philippine-American War,

    1899-1902”

  • Anti-Colonial Guerilla

    Warfare in Eastern Asia

    • Over 300,000 Filipinos

    • + 5000 Americans killed;

    • cost $640 million


Rebelling/Resistance

  • Intellectual-Moral-Spiritual Rebellion

    China: Ethics vs. Western Science and Technology

    India: Spiritual values vs.

    Western Materialism

    Africa: Negritude

    Differences Basis of Nationalisms

    Today: Anti-Westernism,

    Opposition to WTO,

    “fundamentalist” movement


Investigating and Adapting

Japan:

  • Fact-Finding Missions to Europe and USA

  • Search for Secrets of Western Wealth and Power

  • New Westernized Education System

  • Restructure society - abolish social classes.

  • Restructure government – centralize.

  • Restructure economy –

    • Government-Industry Partnership.

    • Heavy Industry (Military).

    • Exports of Cash Crops.

      Westernization == “Revolution from above.”


Results
Results

  • China remains weak, civil war & revolution

  • Japan becomes Colonial Power in Asia, confronts the United States


Embracing

  • Values -- “modernity,” “progress,” “human rights,” “nationhood,” “Christianity”

  • Cultural borrowing – education, high tea, uniforms, architecture, sports


Embracing

  • Western Science/Culture Superior to Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Practices


Become modern

Embracing

Become Modern


Embracing
Embracing ...

Bobbed Hair, Eveready Batteries, Chi-pao dress,

Tango Girls, Cigarettes


European civilization science derived stolen from others

Rejecting

European Civilization/Science derived/stolen from others

Cheik Anta Diop

  • African origins of humanity

  • First civilization – Egypt-African

  • Greek civilization pupil of Egypt


Rejecting

  • Reject "civilizing" features of European colonialism

  • Reject "assimilation“ -- based on the false premise of White racial superiority & independent origin of European civilization


Rejection not complete
Rejection not complete

Arguments based on European archeology, philology, social sciences = Science understood as Universal, not culturally or racially specific

Diop: Docteur es Lettres, University of Paris, Sorbonne, 1960


Fusing
Fusing

From Anti-colonialism to Nationalism =

  • Bounded Territory = sovereign and indivisible

  • notion that People of common origin, language, beliefs should determine own form of government = self-determination


Nationalism liberal constitutionalism

Fusing

Nationalism + Liberal Constitutionalism

  • Gandhi: Western law, Democracy + Indian Spiritual values

  • All Emphasize Universal Human Rights

  • Some give precedence to right to livelihood over political rights


Nationalism socialism collectivism

Fusing

nationalism + socialism (collectivism)

  • Maoism in China Anti-colonialism fused with Western and indigenous Thought


Fusing

Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam -- nationalism modeled on US Declaration of Independence + socialism

Emphasis on violent Revolution in Colonial World


Cultural fusions

Fusing

Cultural fusions

  • Female Emancipation

  • Consumer Culture

  • Sports: Soccer, Basketball, Olympic Games


Fusing

INTERNATIONAL CRICKET COUNCIL

Full members: AUSTRALIA

BANGLADESH

ENGLAND

INDIA

NEW ZEALAND

PAKISTAN

SOUTH AFRICA

SRI LANKA

WEST INDIES

ZIMBABWE


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