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Collective Efficacy. The Impact of Staff Development on Practice. Adapted from research of Bruce Joyce & printed in the NSDC Standards for Staff Development. Self-Efficacy. What is it?.

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Collective Efficacy

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Collective efficacy l.jpg

Collective Efficacy


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The Impact of Staff Development on Practice

Adapted from research of Bruce Joyce & printed in the NSDC Standards for Staff Development.


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Self-Efficacy

What is it?

“Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations.”

Bandura, 1986


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Efficacy Research

Attempts to discover how beliefs about effectiveness affect actual performance…

And what researchers have learned is powerful!


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Why is efficacy important?

Efficacy beliefs determine…

  • whether thinking is

    • erratic or strategic

    • optimistic or pessimistic

  • what courses of action people choose

  • goals people set and commitment to them

  • how much effort they put forth

  • their expectations of success

  • perseverance in the face of obstacles and failure

  • their resilience to adversity

  • how much stress and depression they experience

  • AND the accomplishments they realize


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In other words, it is the psychological research that proves -

Perception IS reality


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OR


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“Whether you believe you can do a thing or nor, you are right.”- Henry Ford


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Collective Teacher Efficacy

What is it?

“Collective efficacy in a school is the perceptions of teachers that the faculty as a whole can execute courses of action required to positively affect student achievement … ”

“in other words, the school sees itself as an effective agent of change.”


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What does research tell us about its impact on student achievement?

  • student achievement is significantly and positively related to collective efficacy

  • collective efficacy has a greater effect on student achievement than does student socioeconomic status

  • one unit increase in a school’s collective teacher efficacy scale score is associated with

    • 8.62 point average gain in student mathematics achievement

    • 8.49 point average gain in reading achievement


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“...collective efficacy is the key organizational variable in facilitating student achievement…it will have the strongest independent influence on achievement.”

Smith, Hoy, & Sweetland, 2001


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What does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement?

  • believe they can reach their students and that they can overcome negative external forces

  • are more persistent in their efforts

  • plan more

  • accept personal responsibility for student achievement

  • are not discouraged by temporary setbacks

When collective efficacy is high, teachers in a school -


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What does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement?

  • efficacious schools are more likely to

    • accept challenging goals

    • demonstrate stronger effort

    • persist in efforts to overcome difficulties and succeed

  • Weak collective efficacy is likely to lead to

    • reduced effort

    • propensity to give up when things get tough


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“…there is strong reason to lead schools in a direction that will systematically develop teacher efficacy; such efforts may indeed be rewarded with continuous growth in not only collective teacher efficacy but also student achievement.” Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000


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What does research tell us about what improves efficacy?

  • Four kinds of experiences impact efficacy beliefs

    • Mastery experience

    • Vicarious experience

    • Social Persuasion

    • Emotional arousal/affective state

“…once established, the collective efficacy of a school is a relatively stable property that requires substantial effort to change.”


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What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy?

  • Mastery experience

    • create situations in which teachers can succeed with students

    • action research projects

  • Vicarious experience

    • role models to demonstrate how skills are applied to achieve successful outcomes

    • discussions with colleagues about success - “what works”


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What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy?

  • Teachers can be changed by

    • Talks

    • Workshops

    • professional development

    • feedback about progress and achievement.

  • Verbal persuasion alone is not potent - requires

    • positive direct experience

    • models of success

    • then can and does influence efficacy beliefs.


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What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy?

  • Efficacious schools tolerate

    • pressure

    • conflicts

    • functioning effectively

  • Behavior of school leaders key influence - either positive or negative

    • calm leadership in conflict

      • limits misinterpretation of events

      • over- or under-reaction.

Organizational Affective State


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These “conclusions are powerful ones that offer great hope to schools struggling to increase student achievement and overcome the association between socioeconomic status and achievement.” Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000


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