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Collective Efficacy. The Impact of Staff Development on Practice. Adapted from research of Bruce Joyce & printed in the NSDC Standards for Staff Development. Self-Efficacy. What is it?.

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the impact of staff development on practice
The Impact of Staff Development on Practice

Adapted from research of Bruce Joyce & printed in the NSDC Standards for Staff Development.

self efficacy
Self-Efficacy

What is it?

“Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations.”

Bandura, 1986

efficacy research
Efficacy Research

Attempts to discover how beliefs about effectiveness affect actual performance…

And what researchers have learned is powerful!

why is efficacy important
Why is efficacy important?

Efficacy beliefs determine…

  • whether thinking is
    • erratic or strategic
    • optimistic or pessimistic
  • what courses of action people choose
  • goals people set and commitment to them
  • how much effort they put forth
  • their expectations of success
  • perseverance in the face of obstacles and failure
  • their resilience to adversity
  • how much stress and depression they experience
  • AND the accomplishments they realize
collective teacher efficacy
Collective Teacher Efficacy

What is it?

“Collective efficacy in a school is the perceptions of teachers that the faculty as a whole can execute courses of action required to positively affect student achievement … ”

“in other words, the school sees itself as an effective agent of change.”

what does research tell us about its impact on student achievement
What does research tell us about its impact on student achievement?
  • student achievement is significantly and positively related to collective efficacy
  • collective efficacy has a greater effect on student achievement than does student socioeconomic status
  • one unit increase in a school’s collective teacher efficacy scale score is associated with
    • 8.62 point average gain in student mathematics achievement
    • 8.49 point average gain in reading achievement
slide11

“...collective efficacy is the key organizational variable in facilitating student achievement…it will have the strongest independent influence on achievement.”

Smith, Hoy, & Sweetland, 2001

what does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement
What does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement?
  • believe they can reach their students and that they can overcome negative external forces
  • are more persistent in their efforts
  • plan more
  • accept personal responsibility for student achievement
  • are not discouraged by temporary setbacks

When collective efficacy is high, teachers in a school -

what does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement13
What does research tell us about why high efficacy improves student achievement?
  • efficacious schools are more likely to
    • accept challenging goals
    • demonstrate stronger effort
    • persist in efforts to overcome difficulties and succeed
  • Weak collective efficacy is likely to lead to
    • reduced effort
    • propensity to give up when things get tough
slide14

“…there is strong reason to lead schools in a direction that will systematically develop teacher efficacy; such efforts may indeed be rewarded with continuous growth in not only collective teacher efficacy but also student achievement.” Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000

what does research tell us about what improves efficacy
What does research tell us about what improves efficacy?
  • Four kinds of experiences impact efficacy beliefs
    • Mastery experience
    • Vicarious experience
    • Social Persuasion
    • Emotional arousal/affective state

“…once established, the collective efficacy of a school is a relatively stable property that requires substantial effort to change.”

what does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy
What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy?
  • Mastery experience
    • create situations in which teachers can succeed with students
    • action research projects
  • Vicarious experience
    • role models to demonstrate how skills are applied to achieve successful outcomes
    • discussions with colleagues about success - “what works”
what does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy17
What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy?
  • Teachers can be changed by
    • Talks
    • Workshops
    • professional development
    • feedback about progress and achievement.
  • Verbal persuasion alone is not potent - requires
    • positive direct experience
    • models of success
    • then can and does influence efficacy beliefs.
what does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy18
What does research tell leaders about how to improve efficacy?
  • Efficacious schools tolerate
    • pressure
    • conflicts
    • functioning effectively
  • Behavior of school leaders key influence - either positive or negative
    • calm leadership in conflict
      • limits misinterpretation of events
      • over- or under-reaction.

Organizational Affective State

slide19

These “conclusions are powerful ones that offer great hope to schools struggling to increase student achievement and overcome the association between socioeconomic status and achievement.” Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2000

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