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chemical reaction engineering

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**1. **Chemical Reaction Engineering

**3. **Isothermal and non-isothermal The major difference between the design of isothermal reactors and that of the non-isothermal reactors lies in the method of evaluating the design equation when temperature varies along the length of a PFR or when heat is removed from a CSTR.

**4. **Why Energy balance? Consider an exothermic reaction and operated adiabatically in a PFR:

**5. **Thermodynamics First law
To a closed (mass) system:

**7. **The work term The work term is usually saparated into “flow work” and “other work”.
Flow work
the work that is necessary to get the mass into and out of the system
for example, when shear stresses are absent:

**19. **Heat added to the reactor The heat flow to the reactor is usually in terms of the overall heat-transfer coefficient, U, the heat-exchange area, A, and the difference between the ambient temperature, Ta, and the reaction temperature, T.

**23. **Non-isothermal operation

**26. **Non-isothermal CSTR rxn example

**51. **Equilibrium conversion The highest conversion that can be achieved in reversible reactions is the equilibrium conversion.
For reversible reactions, the equilbrium conversion is uaually calculated first.
The equilbrium conversion increases with increasing temperature for endothermic reactions.
The equilbrium conversion decreases with increasing temperature for exothermic reactions.

**52. **Exothermic reactions

**60. **Endothermic reactions

**61. **Optimum feed temperature

**62. **Non-adiabatic reactor operation :oxidation of sulfur dioxide example

**68. **Multiple steady states

**70. **Temperature ignition-extinction curve

**72. **Non-isothermal multiple reactions

**75. **Parallel reactions with heat effects (PFR example)

**77. **Series reactions with heat effects (CSTR example)