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Ch. 10: South Asia Rowntree, et. al. Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL Chapter 12: South Asia (Fig. 12.1) Learning Objectives Understand the unique climatological challenges of this region, which include monsoons and cyclones, and accompanying flooding

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Ch 10 south asia l.jpg

Ch. 10: South Asia

Rowntree, et. al.

Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL


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Chapter 12:South Asia(Fig. 12.1)

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Learning Objectives

  • Understand the unique climatological challenges of this region, which include monsoons and cyclones, and accompanying flooding

  • Learn about the challenges and strategies of feeding a large and growing population

  • Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of South Asia

  • Understand the following concepts and models:

-Monsoon

-Green Revolution

-Caste system

-Hinduism

-Mughal Empire

-Orographic rainfall

-Subcontinent

-Indian diaspora

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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KEY CONCEPTS APPLICABLE TO THE REALM

  • CENTRIPETAL - CENTRIFUGAL FORCES

  • FORWARD CAPITAL

    • ISLAMABAD

  • IRREDENTISM – boundaries that divide groups

    • PATHANS (OR PASHTUNS) OF PAKISTAN RELATED TO PEOPLES OF CENTRAL AFGHANISTAN

  • FEDERAL SYSTEM

    • ADOPTED BY INDIA IN 1947

    • PROVIDES REGIONS AND PEOPLES WITH SOME AUTONOMY AND IDENTITY

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Introduction

  • The Himalayan Mountains are in South Asia

  • Called the Indian subcontinent

  • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives

  • South Asia is the world’s second most populous region

  • The population is growing, raising concerns about food production keeping pace

  • South Asia was a British colony for several centuries

  • Since achieving in 1947, India and Pakistan have been embroiled in conflict; both countries have nuclear weapons

  • This region is one of the world’s poorest

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Creation of the Realm

Continental Drift

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

  • The Film Star and the Poacher King

    • Outlaw and poacher Koose Veerappan kidnapped film star Rajkumar in a case that illustrates culture and politics in South Asia

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

  • Environmental Issues in South Asia

    • 1984 explosion at Bhopal fertilizer plant killed 2,500 people – inadequate supervision of foreign investors

  • Natural Hazards in Bangladesh

    • Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas flood in wet summer monsoons; dense settlement there causes many deaths

  • Forests and Deforestation

    • Ganges Valley and coastal plains of India deforested for agriculture

    • Deforestation’s causes: agricultural, urban, and industrial expansion

    • Problems: fuel wood shortage leads to use of manure which then cannot be used as fertilizer

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Environmental Issues in South Asia (cont.)

  • South Asia’s Monsoon Climates

    • Monsoon: the distinct seasonal change of wind direction; in South Asia

      • Summer monsoon brings rain and flooding to Bangladesh

      • Winter monsoon is dry

    • Orographic rainfall: precipitation from the uplifting and cooling of moist winds; it occurs in the Western Ghats and Himalayas

      • Rain-shadow effect: the area of low rainfall found on the leeward (or downwind side) of a mountain range

    • Drier conditions in Pakistan

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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MONSOONS

  • “To know India and her people, one has to know the monsoon.”

  • To the people of India the monsoons are a source of life.

  • From an Arabic word meaning seasonal reversal of winds

  • General onshore movement in summer

  • General offshore flow in winter

  • Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime – Two monsoons – wet one & dry one

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Monsoon Principles

  • Wind is a horizontal movement of air from a high pressure area to a low pressure area.

  • Land surfaces heat up and cool off more quickly and to a greater degree than water bodies.

  • During the warmer months, a low pressure tends to develop over land and a high pressure over the adjacent water bodies. (wet monsoon)

  • During the cooler months, a high pressure tends to develop over land and a low pressure over the adjacent land areas. (dry monsoon)

  • This results in the shifting of the prevailing winds -- MONSOONS

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Seasons NOT defined by temperature patterns, but by precipitation patterns

Seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction

Dry monsoon Wet monsoon

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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MONSOON RAINS MAY BRING DISASTEROUS FLOODS TO BANGLADESH

ESSENTIAL FOR RICE PRODUCTION.

HOWEVER…

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Low Elevations

  • Purple shades are highlands

  • Orange is for “uplands” – dissected plateaus

  • All the other colors are for types of plains – easily flooded areas

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Massive Delta Region

  • Brahmaputra Delta

    Thousands of tributaries and distributaries that can flood (only the larger ones are shown on the map.)

  • Ganges Delta

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Rice is Dependant on the Monsoons

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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POTENTIALLY NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MONSOONS

RESULTS OF CATASTROPHIC RAINFALL

  • Widespread flooding

  • Property damage

  • Destruction to agricultural lands

  • Damage to transportation infrastructure

  • Homelessness

  • Disease

  • Malnutrition

  • Serious injury

  • Death

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Climates of South Asia (Fig. 12.6)

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.)

  • The Four Subregions of South Asia

    • Mountains of the North

      • Collision of Indian Subcontinent with Asian landmass

        • Himalayas, Karakoram Range, Arakan Yoma Mountains

    • Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands

      • Lowlands created by three major river systems

        • Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers

    • Peninsular India

      • Deccan Plateau covers most of India, is bordered by Eastern and Western Ghats (mountains)

    • The Southern Islands

      • Sri Lanka (1 island) and Maldives (1,200 small islands)

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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PhysicalGeography of South Asia(Fig. 12.2)

Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands

Peninsular India

Mountains of the North

The Southern Islands

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma

  • India has more than 1 billion people

    • Concern about producing enough food

    • India’s TFR at 3.2, but preference for males creates problems

  • Pakistan has 145 million people

    • Pakistan lacks an effective, coordinated family planning program

    • Overall TFR is 5.6; RNI is 2.8%

    • Linked to Muslim culture

    • Early childhood mortality, and low rate of female contraception

  • Bangladesh has 133.5 million people

    • Has one of the highest settlement densities in the world

    • TFR is 3.3

    • Strong government support for family planning

    • Muslim culture, but more flexible

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Population Density

POPULATION DENSITY (INDIA)

ARITHMETIC- 904/sq mi

PHYSIOLOGIC- 1,615/sq mi (US=415/sq mi)

World Average = 117/mi2

36

Pacific

SoutheastAsia

315

Southeast Asia

EastAsia

341

SouthAsia

865

South Asia

SubsaharanAfrica

Subsaharan Africa

82

N. Africa/S.W. Asia

52

N. Africa/S.W. Asia

SouthAmerica

53

South America

176

MiddleAmerica

Middle America

7.6

Austral

874

Japan

Japan

NorthAmerica

42

North America

Russia

Russia

22

265

Europe

Europe

0

400

600

800

1000

200

Realm

People per square mile

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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PopulationMap ofSouth Asia(Fig. 12.8)

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISON

United States - Bangladesh

UNITED STATES

77people/

sqmile

BANGLADESH

133,000,000

50,300

2,644people/

sqmile

Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

  • Migration and the Settlement Landscape

    • South Asia is one of the least urbanized regions of the world

      • Majority live in compact rural villages

      • Rural-to-urban migration caused by agricultural changes

    • Most settlement near fertile soils and dependable water sources

  • Agricultural Regions and Activities

    • Agriculture has historically been unproductive

    • Green Revolution: agricultural techniques based on hybrid crop strains and heavy use of industrial fertilizers and chemical pesticides

      • Greatly increased agricultural yields in South Asia

      • High social and cultural costs

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

    • Agricultural Regions and Activities

      • Crop Zones

        • Rice: lower Ganges Valley, lowlands of India’s eastern and western coasts, delta lands of Bangladesh, Pakistan’s lower Indus Valley, and Sri Lanka

        • Wheat: northern Indus Valley, western half of India’s Ganges Valley

          • Punjab is India’s “breadbasket”

        • Millet and sorghum in less fertile areas

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    WHAT CLIMATE VARIABLES HELP TO EXPLAIN THIS DISTRIBUTION?

    • Cooler to the north and warmer to the south

    • Drier in the west and wetter in the east

    • Orographic precipitation in the south

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

    • The Green Revolution

      • Use of hybrid, high-yield seeds to bolster production

        • 1970 to 1990s: India more than doubled annual grain production

      • Only more prosperous farmers could afford to adopt seeds and use mechanization

      • Environmental problems from dependency on chemical fertilizers and pesticides

      • Poorer farmers forced from their lands

      • Salinization in irrigated areas

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

    • Urban South Asia

      • About 25% of the South Asian population resides in urban areas

        • Many live in bustees (sprawling squatter settlements)

    • Mumbai (Bombay)

      • Largest city in South Asia

      • Financial, commercial, and industrial center

      • Less-fortunate immigrants live in “hutments” – crude shelters built on formerly busy sidewalks

    • Delhi/New Delhi

      • More than 11 million people

      • India’s capital, has British colonial imprint

      • Air pollution a problem

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Mumbai bombay l.jpg

    Mumbai (Bombay)

    Boy begging from motorists

    Three ages in architecture: colonial, modern, and pre-colonial.

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Slide32 l.jpg

    Modern Hotel

    Red Fort Mosque (disused)

    Lotus Temple Parliament Delhi street scene

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.)

    • Urban South Asia (cont.)

      • Calcutta

        • More than 12 million people

        • Problems: poverty, pollution, congestion, homelessness

      • Karachi

        • More than 7 million people

        • Pakistan’s largest city

        • Political and ethnic tensions between Sindis (native inhabitants) and Muhajirs (Muslim refugees from India)

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Calcutta l.jpg

    Calcutta

    Street scene Modern Business District Children on school bus

    Jain temple

    Outdoor market

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries

    • Since its inception in 1948, India has been a secular state

      • Growth of Hindu nationalism: movement promoting Hindu values as essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society

      • Tensions between Hindus and Muslims in India

      • Tensions between fundamentalists and secularists in Pakistan

  • Origins of South Asian Civilizations

    • Indus Valley civilization established 5,000 years ago

    • By 800 B.C., a new urban focus in Ganges Valley

  • Hindu Civilization

    • Hinduism: a complicated faith without a single, uniformly accepted system of belief

    • Sanskrit: sacred languages of Hinduism

    • Caste system: strict division of Hindu society into ranked hereditary groups

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Cultural coherence and diversity a common heritage undermined by religious rivalries cont l.jpg

    Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

    • Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.)

      • Buddhism

        • Siddhartha Gautama (563 B.C.), the Buddha

          • From elite caste, but rejected wealth and power

          • Sought to attain mystical union with the universe (enlightenment)

        • Faith spread throughout South Asia, and East, Southeast, and Central Asia, but retreated from South Asia

      • Arrival of Islam

        • Around 700 A.D. Arab armies conquered lower Indus Valley

        • Mughal Empire, a powerful Muslim state, dominated

        • Conversion in northwest (Pakistan) and Northeast (Bangladesh)

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Cultural coherence and diversity a common heritage undermined by religious rivalries cont37 l.jpg

    Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

    • Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.)

      • The Caste System

        • Regional variations, religious differences in acceptance of caste system

        • Caste: complex social order

          • Varna: ancient fourfold social hierarchy of the Hindu world

          • Jati: refers to local hundreds of local endogamous groups

            • Castes include Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras

            • Scheduled castes or “untouchables” or dalits

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Cultural coherence and diversity a common heritage undermined by religious rivalries cont38 l.jpg

    Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

    • Contemporary Geographies of Religion

      • Hinduism

        • Major faith of India and Nepal

        • Forms of worship differ by region

      • Islam

        • 400 million Muslims in the region, among the largest Muslim communities in the world

          • Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives are mostly Muslim

          • In India, Muslims concentrated in the cities, in the north, the upper and central Ganges plain, and in Kerala

      • Sikhism

        • Sikhism: faith incorporating elements of Hinduism and Islam

        • Originated in Punjab in 1400s, still concentrated in Punjab

        • Sikh men noted for work as soldiers and bodyguards

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    HINDUISM

    • Not just a religion – an intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, & artistic elements

    • No common creed

    • No single doctrine

    • No direct divine revelation

    • No rigid narrow moral code

    • No leadership hierarchy

    • Can be practiced on different levels of spirituality – mainly an individual enterprise

    • Has had the ability to absorb competing religious ideologies – except for Islam

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    MONOTHEISM OR POLYTHEISM?

    • BRAHMAN – the “Ultimate Reality” – something like “The Force” of Star Wars –not a “personal” god –impersonal force under girding all

    • BRAHMA – the creator – & many incarnations

    • VISHNU – the sustainer – & many incarnations

    • SHIVA – the destroyer – & many incarnations

    • CYCLES OF CREATION (somewhat like reincarnation of the universe) – we’re in 4th cycle

    • When reincarnation ceases, one becomes one with Brahman

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Slide41 l.jpg

    Shiva – the Destroyer

    • Shiva-nataraja – incarnation as the king of dancers – very common symbol of Shiva

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Hindu Temple

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM

    • Four main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste system

      • Reincarnation

      • Karma

      • Dharma

      • Ahimsa

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Reincarnation l.jpg

    REINCARNATION

    • Every living thing has a soul.

    • When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature (transmigration of souls).

    • Souls are reborn in a newly created human or animal life.

    • This continues until the “ultimate reality” is fully understood (one sees the Atman is also Brahman)– then it ceases

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Karma l.jpg

    KARMA

    • Every action brings about certain results.

    • There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions.

    • Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature.

    • Karma is somewhat the result of one’s approach to one’s dharma.

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Dharma l.jpg

    DHARMA

    • A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation. This ties into the caste system.

    • Sometimes seen as analogous to duty

    • Each person’s dharma is different.

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Ahimsa l.jpg

    Ahimsa

    • Seeing all life as sacred – a part of a “oneness”

    • Results in the life principle of non-violence

    • Supports the idea of being in harmony with nature

    • A principle also found in Jainism and Buddhism

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    THREE BASIC PRACTICES

    • Puja or worship – corporate worship not required – largely individual practices

    • Cremation of the dead

    • Regulations of the caste system

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Cultural coherence and diversity a common heritage undermined by religious rivalries cont49 l.jpg

    Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

    • Contemporary Geographies of Religion (cont.)

      • Buddhism and Jainism

        • Buddhism virtually disappeared in India but persisted in Sri Lanka, mainland Southeast Asia, and the high valleys of the Himalayas

        • Jainism – religion that emerged around 500 B.C. as protest to orthodox Hinduism

          • Stressed extreme non-violence

      • Other Religious Groups

        • Parsis (Zoroastrians): an ancient religion focusing on the cosmic struggle between good and evil

          • Concentrated in the Mumbai area

        • More Indian Christians than either Parsis or Jains

        • British missionaries converted animists to Protestantism

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM

    • Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) – founder searching for understanding of suffering

    • Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) Spread Buddhism in India

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Buddhism l.jpg

    BUDDHISM

    • Objected to harsher features of Hinduism such as the caste system

    • Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge

    • Enlightenment ends the cycle of reincarnation

    • Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

    • Sorrow and suffering are part of all life.

    • People suffer because they desire things they cannot have.

    • The way to escape suffering is to end desire, to stop wanting, and to reach a stage of not wanting.

    • To end desire, follow the “middle path,” i.e., the path that avoids the extremes of too much pleasure and desire.

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY

    • Right understanding

    • Right purpose

    • Right speech

    • Right conduct

    • Right means of earning a living

    • Right effort

    • Right awareness

    • Right meditation

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    FALL OF BUDDHISM ON THE SUBCONTINENT

    • Hinduism - broad and tolerant, accepting many of the teachings of Buddha

    • Buddhists in India - willing to compromise with the beliefs and customs of Hinduism

    • Final blow - 8th century - arrival of Islam

      -- Destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries

      -- Burned libraries

      -- Killed monks

    • Today - only 1 million Buddhists in India

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    ISLAM

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Slide56 l.jpg

    Hindu/Muslim-practices/perceptions

    • Hindus tend to be vegetarians (ahimsa and reincarnation beliefs foster this)

    • Cows are sacred animals

    • Believe in reincarnation

    • Brahman, if it is God, is an impersonal one

    • Follow caste system – no social or religious mobility within one lifetime

    • Formerly practiced sutee

    • Muslims see Hindus as polytheistic infidels not to be tolerated

    • Muslims eat meat (cows) – not pork

    • Muslims are strict monotheists

    • Muslims believe in a personal God

    • Muslims reject the concept of castes – equality of believers

    • Reject reincarnation

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    ReligiousGeographyofSouth Asia(Fig. 12.16)

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.)

    • Geographies of Language

      • Dravidian: a linguistic group is unique to southern India

      • Major languages of India associated with an Indian state; political subdivisions follow linguistic lines

    • The Indo-European North

      • Hindi: most widely spoken language of South Asia

        • Second-most widely spoken language in the world

        • Language of the Hindu majority

      • Urdu: language of the Muslim minority

    • Languages of the South

      • Dravidian languages prevail in southern India and northern Sri Lanka

        • Tamil in Sri Lanka

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Geographies of language cont l.jpg

    Geographies of Language (cont.)

    • Linguistic Dilemmas

      • Linguistic nationalism: linking of a language with political goals

        • India encountered resistance to Hindi as a national language

      • Role of Hindi is expanding

      • English is the main integrating language in South Asia

  • South Asians in a Global Cultural Context

    • Use of English helped spread global culture to the region

    • South Asian literature has spread throughout the world

    • Indians migrate to developed and less-developed world regions

    • Imported global culture, especially with sexual content, creates tensions

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region

    • South Asia Before and After Independence in 1947

      • During the 1500s most of region was under the Mughal Empire

        • European merchants established coastal trading posts

      • By 1700s the empire weakened and contending states emerged

    • The British Conquest

      • British East India Company – a private organization acted as an arm of the British government and monopolized trade

        • Exploited political chaos to stake empire

      • Sepoy Mutiny (1856) led to South Asia being ruled directly by the British

      • Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh rulers retained their states under British rule

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    South asia before and after independence in 1947 cont l.jpg

    South Asia Before and After Independence in 1947 (cont.)

    • Independence and Partition

      • By the 1920s political protestors called for independence

      • Gandhi favored a unified state, while Muslim leaders argued for a division

      • Post World War II partitioning

        • India, East and West Pakistan

        • 1971: Bangladesh independence

    • Geopolitical Structure of India

      • India organized as a federal state

        • Individual states retain significant power

        • Following linguistic patterns

        • Added in 2000: Jharkand, Uttaranchal, and Chhattisgarh

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    India’s Political Development – effective leaders in early years

    Jawaharlal Nehru 1947-1964

    Lal Bahadur Shastri – 1964-1966

    Indira Gandhi 1966-1977

    1977- 1980 – Janata Coalition (had defeated Indira Gandhi)

    Indira Gandhi 1980-1984 -- Assassinated

    Rajiv Gandhi 1984 – 1989 – assassinated in election of 1991

    Mid 1990s –corruption and scandals

    1997 – K. R. Narayanan (of the lowest caste)

    1998 – Atal Vajpayee – Hindu Nationalist party

    Oldest continuously functioning democracy in Asia

    Took a neutralist position in the Cold War

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    INDIA & PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION)

    Kashmir -- disputed

    India

    WestPakistan

    EastPakistan

    (Bangladesh)

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


    Centrifugal centripetal forces india l.jpg

    Centrifugal & Centripetal Forces – India

    Centrifugal

    Caste System

    Jharkhand—new state in the making?

    Area of marginalized people seeking statehood so as to have a “voice” in the system.

    Muslim minority

    Frontier wars

    Cultural/linguistic diversity

    Hindu nationalism

    Centripetal

    A single capital

    An interregional transport network

    A lingua franca

    A trained civil service

    Federal system of government

    Strong leadership in its formative years after gaining independence

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    GeopoliticalIssuesinSouthAsia(Fig. 12.22)

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    • Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia

      • Kashmir

        • During British period, ruled by a maharaja (a Hindu king subject to British advisors)

        • During partitioning, Kashmir went to India

        • Tensions between India and Pakistan because Kashmir is Muslim

      • The Punjab

        • Original Punjab area divided between India and Pakistan in 1947

        • Punjab has Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs

        • Tensions, violence led to assassination of Prime Minister Indira Ghandi by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984

        • Still potential for conflict

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Kashmir

    • Disputed with India

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region (cont.)

    • Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia (cont.)

      • The Northeast Fringe

        • Ethnic conflict in states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and portions of Assam

          • Migration from Bangladesh and other parts of India is a potential threat to local culture

      • Sri Lanka

        • North dominated by Hindu Tamils (minority) and south by Buddhist Singhalese (majority)

        • Singhalese favor a national government whereas Tamils support political and cultural autonomy

        • A rebel force, the Tamil Tigers, attacked Sri Lankan army in 1983; tensions still brewing

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    CivilWarinSri Lanka(Fig. 12.27)

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    SRI LANKA

    Sinhalese vs Tamils

    • Tamils - demanded equal rights in:

      -- education

      -- employment

      -- landownership

      -- linguistic & politicalrepresentation

    • Insurgent State

    • LTTE - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region (cont.)

    • International and Global Geopolitics

      • Cold war between India and Pakistan

        • Nuclear capabilities of both countries escalated tensions

        • China allied with Pakistan (China-India border conflict)

        • Terrorist attacks of September 11th complicated matters

        • Pakistani had supported Afghanistan’s Taliban regime, now helps U.S.

      • Marxist rebel movement against India in Nepal

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty

    • South Asian Poverty

      • More than 300 million Indian citizens are below their country’s poverty line, and Bangladesh is poorer

      • Nepal and Bhutan are in worse condition

      • India has a growing middle class, and an upper class

        • About 100 million Indians afford modern consumer goods

  • Geographies of Economic Development

    • The Himalayan Countries

      • Rugged terrain and isolation in Nepal and Bhutan are a disadvantage

      • Bhutan has isolationist stance (tourists must spend $165/day)

      • Nepal’s tourism has resulted in environmental degradation

  • Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

    • Geographies of Economic Development

      • Bangladesh

        • Poorest country in the region

        • Heavy reliance on production of commercial crops

        • Environmental degradation has contributed to poverty

        • Internationally competitive in textile and clothing manufacturing

      • Pakistan

        • Inherited a reasonably well-developed urban infrastructure

        • Agriculture, cotton, textile industry are important

        • Less dynamic economy and less potential for growth

        • Burdened by high levels of defense spending

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

    • Geographies of Economic Development (cont.)

      • Sri Lanka and the Maldives

        • Sri Lanka: second-most highly developed economy in region

          • Exports of agricultural products (rubber and tea) and textiles

          • Civil war has undercut economic progress

        • Maldives is most prosperous country in region, based on GNI

          • Small total economy

      • India’s Lesser Developed Areas

        • India’s economy dwarfs that of other South Asian countries

        • Prosperous west and poorer east

        • Caste tensions exist in these areas

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

    • Geographies of Economic Development (cont.)

      • India’s Centers of Economic Growth

        • Punjab and Haryana are showcase states of Green Revolution

        • Gujarat and Maharashtra are noted for their industrial and financial clout

          • Many Gujarat merchants and traders were part of Indian diaspora (migration of large numbers of Indians to foreign countries)

          • Karnataka’s capital Bangalore is a growing high-tech center

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

    • Globalization and India’s Economic Future

      • South Asia is one of the world’s least globalized regions

        • Low foreign trade and low foreign direct investment

        • Economy based on private ownership combined with government control of planning, resource allocation, and certain heavy industrial sectors

          • Led to low, slow-paced growth

        • 1990s: liberalization of the economy, regulations reduced

        • Future economic policies remain uncertain

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

    • Social Development

      • South Asia has low levels of health and education

        • Punjab, Gujarat, Maharashtra on top; Bihar at the bottom

        • But literacy rates are high in the poor northeast because of missionary education

    • The Educated South

      • Sri Lanka has high levels of social welfare

        • Long life expectancy, low literacy rate

        • Fertility rate reduced to near replacement levels

      • Kerala on the mainland, though not prosperous, has best social development in India

        • Socialist leaders promote education and community health care

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.)

    • The Status of Women

      • Both Hindu and Muslim traditions tend to limit women

      • In many regions of India, female literacy is far lower than that of male literacy

      • Gender imbalances as a result of “differential neglect”

        • In poorer families, boys tend to receive better and more preferential treatment than girls

      • Social position of women is improving, especially in the more prosperous parts of the north

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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    Conclusions

    • Geopolitical tensions in South Asia cause concern

    • Nuclear rivalry between India and Pakistan

    • Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka

    • Religious strife between Hindus and Muslims

    • Bangladesh draws foreign direct investment and prospects for the future

    • India may be perfectly positioned for globalization

    End of Chapter 12: South Asia

    Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff


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