Changing Definitions of Learning Disabilities. Chapter 1. Clinical (1920-1940) LD differentiated from other disabilities Classroom Transition (1940-1960) classroom instruction Consolidation (1962-1975) political pressure to consolidate various groups into one field.
(1940-1960) classroom instruction
Consolidation (1962-1975) political pressure to consolidate various groups into one field
Expansion (1975-1988) increase number of children identified as services are ensured
Retrenchment (1988-2001) lack of adequate definition, increased #s ID and questions about services provided with recommendations for inclusion
Revitalization (2002) President’s Commission recommend changesHistorical Phases
The term “specific learning disability” means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (for example, sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of those conditions or influences.