Animal Adaptations Arthropods Biological Control (Integrated Pest Management). Animal Adaptations. Correlations of life choices with structural and physiological changes. Things to think about. Why choose? = competition – or avoiding it. . Reproductive cycles.
Correlations of life choices with structural and physiological changes. Things to think about
Why choose? = competition – or avoiding it.
Coral life cycle. The medusa (like a jellyfish) is diploid, but male or female or both. Meiosis in it produces eggs and sperm – planula is a dispersal phase
What affects the choices?
Sessile vs motile? pros and cons.)
Which systems affected?
What limits placed on where you live- why?
Reproduction: sexual, motile sperm find egg, but also cloning (asexual) plus regeneration
Food; in water, mostly ocean (why?)
Dispersal: larvae with flagella.
Protection: regeneration, spicules
Symmetry: assymetric vs pros and cons.)
Which leads to what systems?
Nerves and senses and brain concentration.
One of the major senses: Light sensitivity pros and cons.)
Nearly all cells have it – goes back to bacteria.
Higher animals – special light sensory devices – function
detect light – use for clocks – telling seasons, etc.
detect movement only - protection
identify shape; - leads to memory.
How to take an image – break it into bits of information – transmit to brain for storage and processing?
Note: diurnal vs nocturnal
diurnal ; shape perception = eyes
nocturnal: -vision – see movement, not shape.
shape perception in dark = radar, sonar – bats and porpoises
What if you are motile and can’t find a mate? pros and cons.)
Under what conditions is this likely to occur??
Parasites in body
Whiptail lizards, among others pros and cons.)
Parthenogenesis = egg develops without
Why here? (are males that repulsive?)
What systems required to gain in size? Why?
Circulation, respiration, excretion, skeleton
Skeleton – a requirement of size pros and cons.)
Limitations of each?
Hydrostatic pros and cons.)
Muscles compress compartments – push the worm forward. Setae(spines) hold portions of body to ground.
Note cross – sectional diameter. pros and cons.)
keep wet gills
insects – spiracles.
Fish gill structure – large surface area
Terrestrial vs aquatic: respiration
Which systems affected?
As with plants.
How to avoid drying out
How to breathe – get oxygen.
Feeding types: respiration
Specialized food; molluscs, fish, ants,
Which feeding type leads to:
more active life?
larger population size?
Cold vs warm blooded: - what are the advantages, disadvantages of each?
What conditions might favor the development of warm bloodedness?
Figure 40.9 Ectotherms and Endotherms React Differently to Environmental Temperatures (A)
Mammals as maxitherms. Environmental Temperatures (A)
How to deal with harsh conditions? Environmental Temperatures (A)
Like a plant: - survive as egg (seed)
- adapt (fur, evaporative cooling, etc)
-migration – avoid bad conditions
Allen’s rule; larger extremities in warmer climates Environmental Temperatures (A)
Butterflies and moths Environmental Temperatures (A)
Bees, ants, wasps
Trilobites – stem group, marine Environmental Temperatures (A)
External skeleton Environmental Temperatures (A)
Metamorphosis vs incomplete metamorphosis. Environmental Temperatures (A)
Find a natural parasite or disease of the pest. Environmental Temperatures (A)
Breed it, and release it into the environment
Here parasitic wasps lay eggs on caterpillars, kill them so they won’t eat a crop.
Screw worm fly Environmental Temperatures (A)
So: knock the population down with pesticide
release a lot of sterile males 10-100 for each fertile male
get rid of flies in one year.
Moth and caterpillar crop pests Environmental Temperatures (A)
Females release a pheromone to attract males. Environmental Temperatures (A)
Synthesize the pheromone
Place in traps around the crop
Poor female left forlorn in the field.
So synthesize the juvenile hormone, spray on crop
Caterpillers never metamorphoze, never pupate.
No adults formed, no increase in population.
New technique – Bt corn etc. formation.
Insert the genes for a bacterial toxin into a plant crop (plus the genes to turn it on, etc.
Bt is a bacterial toxin against moth and butterfly caterpillers.
To kill a susceptible insect, a part of the plant that contains the Bt protein (not all parts of the plant necessarily contain the protein in equal concentrations) must be ingested. Within minutes, the protein binds to the gut wall and the insect stops feeding. Within hours, the gut wall breaks down and normal gut bacteria invade the body cavity. The insect dies of septicemia as bacteria multiply in the blood. Even among Lepidoptera larvae, species differ in sensitivity to the Bt protein.
Why are biological controls good? formation.
By the Industry (Dow and Monsanto Chemical)