age of absolutism

age of absolutism PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Enlightened Despots. Enlightened Despots had absolute powergave citizens limited freedomsLiked enlightenment ideals as long as they retained powerrulers took away freedoms when threatened. . Charles V 1500-1558 1516-1558. Reign of Charles V. 1516-1556 ruled:SpainAmerican colonies1519 Ruled:Holy Roman EmpireItalyAustriaNetherlandsGermany.

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2. Enlightened Despots Enlightened Despots had absolute power gave citizens limited freedoms Liked enlightenment ideals as long as they retained power rulers took away freedoms when threatened.

3. Charles V1500-15581516-1558

4. Reign of Charles V 1516-1556 ruled: Spain American colonies 1519 Ruled: Holy Roman Empire Italy Austria Netherlands Germany Devout Catholic Fought Muslims Fought Protestants Signed the Peace of Augsburg Divided empire among Ferdinand (brother) Phillip II (son)

5. Phillip II1527-15981556-1598

6. Reign of Phillip II Believed in divine right: Defender of Catholicism Increased power of Catholic Church Traditions of Reconquista Traditions of Inquisition victorious assault against Muslims (Lepanto) Defeated Muslim fleet with his Armada Failed attack against Protestant England Failure weakened Empire Armada Destroyed King of England husband of Mary I (1554-1558)

7. Life in Spain Patrons of art due to riches El Greco: Brilliant/clashing colors Painted saints and martyrs as mythic figures Diego Velazquez Painted monarchy Showed pride and power of Spain Cervantes Don Quixote tale of man’s quest for valor and return to old traditions

8. Spain Loses Power Inflation Influx of silver & gold from America’s devalued it in Spain Merchants raised price of goods Reconquista led to shortage of artisans & merchants Many middle class merchants where non-Catholic Tax burden fell on poor nobles did not pay taxes Spanish goods too expensive foreign goods less expensive Over borrowing led to Spanish bankruptcy Protestant Dutch (William the Orange) fought for independence

9. Peter the Great (Russia)1672 -17251682 - 1725

10. Peter’s Reign Westernization of Russia Traveled Europe (disguised as carpenter) to witness advances Imported Western technology & Culture Forced boyars to serve the state boyars shave beards wore western clothes Not an option increased serfdom controlled Russian Orthodox Church created Russian newspaper edited by him created largest standing army in Europe

11. Russian Expansion Lost war against Ottoman Empire for warm-water port wanted access to European trade & ideas War with Sweden won land along the Baltic Sea. Built Russian capital St. Petersburg on captured land

12. Catherine the Great (Russia)1729 -17961762 -1796

13. Catherine’s Reign Marries weak Czar Peter III Gains power by way of alliances Peter dies mysteriously Reforms/Promises/Accomplishments codified laws Universal education Westernization gained warm water port on Black Sea Expanded empire wanted to free serfs serf rebellion stopped plan increased power of nobles over serfs Religious tolerance abolish torture no capital punishment

14. Louis XIVSun King1638 -17151643-1715

15. Louis’s Reign King at 5 with Regents Anne of Austria & Cardinal Mazarin Controls throne in 1661 Mazarin’s death Marriage to Marie Therese 1660 Daughter of Phillip IV of Spain 72 year Reign Never calls the Estates General to meet

16. Palace at Versailles

17. Nobles to the Palace Wanted the nobles to live at Versailles Keep your friends close, your enemies closer Entertained with operas, dances, card games, theatre , hunting etc. Intendants would govern Nobles did not have to worry about governing intendants would collect taxes & administer justice

18. Louis and the economy Mercantilism colony exists for benefit of mother country Jean Colbert wanted France to be self sufficient Placed taxes on imports Gave tax breaks to French companies

19. Disaster Strikes Huguenots leave France for religious freedom Middle class is depleted (artisans, business people) Palace costs millions Poor harvests High taxes Costly wars League of Augsburg Vs. France War of Spanish Succession

20. Frederick the Great (Prussia) 1712-17861740-1786

21. Reign of Frederick the Great Reforms serve & strengthen country Monarch’s serve the state & support the people’s welfare “The first servant of the state” Religious tolerance (corresponded with Voltaire) reduced censorship improved education reformed justice system abolished torture Supported the arts Did not free serfs change social order

22. Joseph II (Austria) 1741 - 1790 1765 - 1790

23. Reign of Joseph II Reforms: Legal reforms freedom of the press religious freedom abolition of serfdom

24. Marie Theresa(Austria) 1717-1780 1765-1780

25. Reign of Maria Theresa 1765 Dowager Empress upon death of husband Francis I Shared Empire with son Joseph Achievements/Reforms: Financial educational reforms promoted commerce development of agriculture reorganized the army Mother of 16 married for love but strong leader Fought Prussia with newborn baby Children include Joseph II, Leopold II, Marie Antoinette Limits working day for peasants

26. Charles I(England)1600 -16491625-1649 King without Parliament

27. Reign of Charles I Wanted rule without Parliament Raised taxes to fund Empire Calls upon Parliament for approval Parliament Made him sign the Petition of Rights No imprisonment without cause No new taxes without consent of Parliament No soldiers in private homes without consent No martial law in peace time Charles Ignored the document pays the price executed

28. Oliver Cromwell Only non-monarch to rule England Became military dictator Careful what you wish for Puritan rules Tore up first written constitution (In Europe) Cromwell’s death returned rule to monarchy Charles II James II Glorious Revolution English refused rule of Catholic James II James is forced into exile William and Mary co-rule only time England had husband and wife = leaders

29. Age of Absolutism Growth of National Kingdoms Decline of feudalism Loss of noble power Large courts Building projects Claimed divine right Large armies Loss of power by church Citizenship Rise of middle class Revolt by peasants & nobles Paid high taxes Little to no representation Denied basic rights

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