CO2 capture and geological storage - state of the art, ongoing projects
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Introduction 4694016

CO2 capture and geological storage - state of the art, ongoing projects EC FP6 EU GEOCAPACITY CO2 EAST and prospects for the Baltic region


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

  • CO2 capture and storage is a pioneer for Estonia research and applied area started by Institute of Geology, TUT in 2006 by two projects funded by 6th Framework Programme of European Comission

  • 1) Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide (2006-2008), 26 participants from 23 countries (EUGEOCAPACITY)

  • 2) CO2 capture and storage networking extension to new member states (1.10. 2006-31.03. 2009), 8 countries (CO2EAST)


Introduction 4694016

  • Both projects were organised by ENeRG, the European Network for Research in Geo-energy, established in 1993 and represented by 24 countries

  • http://energnet.nextnet.ro/


Introduction 4694016

Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide (2006-2008), Euroopas süsinikdioksiidi geoloogilise ladustamisvõime hindamine (2006-2008)

  • 1Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) – Co-ordinatorDenmark

  • 2Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" (US)Bulgaria

  • 3University of Zagreb - Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (RGN)Croatia

  • 4Czech Geological Survey (CGS)Czech Republic

  • 5Institute of Geology at Tallinn University of Technology (IGTUT)Estonia

  • 6Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Miniéres (BRGM)France

  • 7Institute Francais du Petrole (IFP)France

  • 8Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)Germany

  • 9Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME)Greece

  • 10Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary (ELGI)Hungary

  • 11Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS)Italy

  • 12Latvian Environment, Geology & Meteorology Agency (LEGMA)Latvia

  • 13Institute of Geology & Geography (IGG)Lithuania

  • 14Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO-NITG)Netherlands

  • 15EcofysNetherlands

  • 16Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute - Polish Academy of Sciences (MEERI)Poland

  • 17Geophysical Exploration Company (PBG)Poland

  • 18National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology (GeoEcoMar)Romania

  • 19Dionýz Štúr State Geological Institute (SGUDS)Slovakia

  • 20GEOINŽENIRING d.o.o. (GEO-INZ)Slovenia

  • 21Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana (IGME)Spain

  • 22British Geological Survey (BGS)United Kíngdom

  • 23EniTecnologie (Industry Partner)Italy

  • 24Endesa Generación (Industry Partner)Spain

  • 25Vattenfall AB (Industry Partner)Sweden/Poland

  • 26Tsinghua University (TU)P.R. China

  • http://nts1.cgu.cz/portal/page/portal/geocapacity


The objectives of the project

The objectives of the project

• To make an inventory and mapping of major CO2 emission point sources in 13 European countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain), and review of 4 neighbouring states: Albania, Macedonia (FYROM), Bosnia-Herzegovina, Luxemburg) as well as updates for 5 other countries (Germany, Denmark, UK, France, Greece)

• conduct assessment of regional and local potential for geological storage of CO2 for each of the involved countries

• carry out analyses of source-transport-sink scenarios and conduct economical evaluations of these scenarios

• provide consistent and clear guidelines for assessment of geological capacity in Europe and elsewhere

• further develop mapping and analysis methodologies (i.e. GIS and Decision Support System)

• develop technical site selection criteria

• initiate international collaborative activities with the P.R. China, a CSLF member, with a view to further and closer joint activities


Introduction 4694016

CO2 capture and storage networking extension to new member states (1.10. 2006-31.03. 2009)CO2 hoidlate võrgu laiendamine uutele liikmesriikidele


The detailed objectives of the project are

The detailed objectives of the project are:

  • Provide membership support to new CO2NET member organisations from EU new Member States and Associated Candidate Countries by covering their annual membership fees and travel costs to the CO2NET Annual Seminars and enable them active participation in networking activities

  • Co-organise one of the CO2NET Annual Seminars and organise 2 regional workshops in new Member States and/or Associated Candidate Countries

  • Disseminate knowledge and increase awareness of CO2 capture and storage technologies in new Member States and Associated Candidate Countries

  • Establish links among CCS stakeholders in new Member States and Associated Candidate Countries and between them and their partners in other EU countries using the existing networks like CO2NET and ENeRG (European Network for Research in Geo-Energy) as well as links with the newly established Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants


Introduction 4694016

  • Participants from Institute of Geogy, TUT

  • A. Shogenova (coordination, data presentation, publication and reporting)

  • K. Shogenov

  • J. Ivask (WEB-master)

  • R.Vaher, A. Teedumäe (interpreters)

  • A. Raukas – information dissemination in government and mass-media


Co2net lectures on carbon capture and storage

CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage

  • Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS

  • CO2 sources and capture

  • Storage, risk assessment and monitoring

  • Economics

  • Legal aspects and public acceptance

Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research


Sustainable development

Sustainable development

  • People (Social dimension)

  • Profit (Economic dimension)

  • Planet (Ecological dimension)

“a development that fulfills the needs of the present generation without endangering the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

(“Our Common Future”, 1987)

Dimensions of ‘sustainable development’


Introduction 4694016

  • “There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.”

source: IPCC, Working Group I


Rule of thumb

Rule of thumb

Warming rate 1°C / century corresponds to:

  • ± 20 cm sea level rise

  • ± 100 km shift of climate zone / century

  • ± 150 m upward shift alpine climate zone/century


Introduction 4694016

Alpine glacier in 1900

Same place present


International agreements

International agreements

preventing "dangerous" human interference with the climate system. (UNFCCC, 1992)

First step Kyoto: binding targets for industrialised world. (EU -8%, VS -7%, Japan -6% in 2008-2012 compared to 1990)


Introduction 4694016

Land use

Energy

(deforestation, ...)

(fossil fuels)

6,3 Gt C /an

(ou 23 Gt CO2 /an)

6,3 Gt C / year

(or 23 Gt CO2 / year)

1,6 Gt C /an

1,6 Gt C / year

Origin of anthropogenic CO2 emissions

World annual emissions: 8 Gt C / year, or 30 Gt CO2 / year

Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research


Introduction 4694016

CO2 fluxes between Earth and atmosphere

(in billion tons of carbon per year)


Options that can meet demands

Options that can meet demands

  • Energy conservation, energy efficiency

  • Renewable sources

    • Wind

    • Solar

    • Biomass

    • Tidal/wave

    • Geothermal

  • (New) fossil fuels with CCS

  • Nuclear


Why co 2 capture and storage

Why CO2 Capture and Storage?

  • Third option for CO2 emission reduction.

  • Enables continued use of fossil fuel resources

  • Potential for large CO2 storage/disposal capacity.

  • Technology is available.

  • Costs CCS are significant, but can be reduced.

  • Environmental impact can be limited; further research required.


Conclusion ccs is the third choice

Conclusion CCS is the third choice


Co2net lectures on carbon capture and storage1

CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage

  • Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS

  • CO2 sources and capture

  • Storage, risk assessment and monitoring

  • Economics

  • Legal aspects and public acceptance

Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research


Contents lecture 2 co 2 sources and capture

Contents lecture 2:CO2 sources and capture

  • CO2 sources

  • CO2 capture/decarbonisation routes

  • Separation principles

  • CO2 capture technologies in power cycles + consequences on the power cycle

  • Comparison of different CO2 capture technologies

  • CO2 transport


Co 2 emissions industry and power

CO2 emissions industry and power

Total: 13.44 Gt/y in 2000.

Source: IEA GHG 2002a


Co 2 emissions by region

CO2 emissions by region

Source: IEA GHG 2002a


Co 2 source distribution

CO2 source distribution

Source: IEA GHG 2002b


Co 2 sources and capture

CO2 sources and capture

  • CO2 capture targets: large, stationary plants.

  • Power production

    • Large sources, representing large share total emissions

  • Industrial processes

    • Large sources, some emitting pure CO2

  • Synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Trops gasoline/diesel, Dimethyl ether (DME), methanol, ethanol)

    • Target sources in future?


Power plants

Power plants

  • Pulverised coal plants (PC)

  • Natural gas combined cycle (NGCC)

  • Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

  • Boilers fuelled with natural gas, oil, biomass and lignite

  • Future: fuel cells


Co 2 capture routes summary

CO2 capture routes: summary

  • Post-combustion capture: separation CO2-N2

  • Pre-combustion capture: separation CO2-H2

  • Oxyfuel combustion: separation O2-N2


Separation principles

Separation principles

  • Absorption: fluid dissolves or permeates into a liquid or solid.

  • Adsorption: attachment of fluid to a surface (solid or liquid).

  • Cryogenic (low-temperature distillation): separation based on the difference in boiling points

  • Membranes: separation which makes use of difference physical/chemical interaction with membrane (molecular weight, solubility)


Absorption versus adsorption chemical versus physical

Absorption versus adsorptionChemical versus physical


Physical adsorption

Physical adsorption

  • Van der Waals forces

  • Can be performed at high temperature

  • Adsorbents: zeolites, activated carbon and alumina

  • Regeneration (cyclic process):

    • Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA)

    • Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA)

    • Electrical Swing Adsorption (ESA)

    • Hybrids (PTSA)


Chemical adsorption

Chemical adsorption

  • Covalent bonds

  • Adsorbents: metal oxides, hydrotalcites

  • Example: carbonation (>600°C) - calcination (1000°C) reaction

    CaO + CO2 CaCO3

  • Regeneration (cyclic process):

    • Pressure Swing Adsorption

    • Temperature Swing Adsorption


Cryogenic separation principles 1

Cryogenic separation: principles (1)

  • Distillation at low temperatures. Applied to separate CO2 from natural gas or O2 from N2 and Ar in air.


Membrane absorption

Membrane absorption

Source: Feron, TNO-MEP


Combining capture routes and technologies co 2 capture matrix

Combining capture routes and technologies: CO2 capture matrix

Source: Feron, TNO-MEP


Summary post combustion capture

Summary: Post-combustion capture

  • Chemical absorption is currently most feasible technology

  • Technology is commercially available, although on a smaller scale than envisioned for power plants with CO2 capture (>500 MWe)

  • Energy penalty and additional costs are high with current solvents. R&D focus on process integration and solvent improvement.

  • CO2 capture between 80-90%

  • Power cycle itself is not strongly affected (heat integration, CO2 recycling)

  • Retrofit possibility


Summary pre combustion capture

Summary: Pre-combustion capture

  • Chemical/physical absorption is currently most feasible technology

  • Experience in chemical industry (refineries, ammonia)

  • Energy penalty and additional costs physical absorption are lower in comparison to chemical absorption

  • CO2 capture between 80-90%

  • Need to develop turbines using hydrogen (rich) fuel

  • No retrofit possibility

  • Advanced concepts to decrease energy penalty/costs:

    • sorption enhanced WGS/reforming

    • membrane WGS/reforming


Oxyfuel combustion chemical looping combustion

Oxyfuel combustion:Chemical looping combustion


Summary oxyfuel combustion 1

Summary: Oxyfuel combustion (1)

  • Cryogenic air separation is currently most feasible technology

  • Experience in steel, aluminum and glass industry

  • Energy penalty and additional costs are comparable to post-combustion capture

  • Allows for 100% CO2 capture

  • NOx formation can be reduced

  • FGD in PC plants might be omitted provided that SO2 can be transported and co-stored with CO2


Summary oxyfuel combustion 2

Summary: Oxyfuel combustion (2)

  • Boilers require adaptations (retrofit possible). R&D issues: combustion behaviour, heat transfer, fouling, slagging and corrosion.

  • Application in NGCC: new turbines need to be developed with CO2 as working fluid (no retrofit)

  • R&D focus on development of new oxygen separation technologies. Advanced concepts to decrease energy penalty/costs:

    • AZEP (separate combustion deploying oxygen membranes)

    • Chemical looping combustion (separate combustion deploying oxygen carriers).


Contents

Contents

  • CO2 sources

  • CO2 capture/decarbonisation routes

  • Separation principles

  • CO2 capture technologies in power cycles + consequences on the power cycle

  • Comparison of different CO2 capture technologies

  • CO2 transport


Co 2 transport

CO2 transport

  • Pipelines are most feasible for large-scale CO2 transport

    • Transport conditions: high-pressure (80-150 bar) to guarantee CO2 is in dense phase

  • Alternative: Tankers (similar to LNG/LPG)

    • Transport conditions: liquid (14 to 17 bar, -25 to -30°C)

    • Advantage: flexibility, avoidance of large investments

    • Disadvantage: high costs for liquefaction and need for buffer storage. This makes ships more attractive for larger distances.


Pipeline versus ship transport

Pipeline versus ship transport

Source: IEA GHG, 2004


Pipeline optimisation

Pipeline optimisation

  • Small diameter: large pressure drop, increasing booster station costs (capital + electricity)

  • Large diameter: large pipeline investments

  • Optimum: minimise annual costs (sum of pipeline and booster station capital and O&M costs plus electricity costs for pumping).

  • Offshore: pipelines diameters and pressures are generally higher as booster stations are expensive


Co 2 quality specifications

CO2 quality specifications

  • USA: > 95 mol% CO2

  • Water content should be reduced to very low concentrations due to formation of carbonic acid causing corrosion

  • Concentration of H2S, O2 must be reduced to ppm level

  • N2 is allowed up to a few %


Co 2 transport costs

CO2 transport costs

Source: Damen, UU


Risks pipeline transport

Risks pipeline transport

  • Major risk: pipeline rupture. CO2 leakage can be reduced by decreasing distance between safety valves.

  • CO2 is not explosive or inflammable like natural gas

  • In contrast to natural gas, which is dispersed quickly into the air, CO2 is denser than air and might accumulate in depressions or cellars

  • High concentrations CO2 might have negative impacts on humans (asphyxiation) and ecosystems. Above concentrations of 25-30%, CO2 is lethal.


Safety record pipelines

Safety record pipelines

  • Industrial experience in USA: 3100 km CO2 pipelines (for enhanced oil recovery) with capacity of 45 Mt/yr

  • Accident record for CO2 pipelines in the USA shows 10 accidents between 1990 and 2001 without any injuries or fatalities. This corresponds to 3.2.10-4 incidents per km*year

  • Incident frequency of pipelines transmitting natural gas and hazardous liquids in this period is 1.7.10-4 and 8.2.10-4, respectively, with 94 fatalities and 466 injuries

    Conclusion: CO2 transport is relatively safe.


Co2net lectures on carbon capture and storage2

CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage

  • Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS

  • CO2 sources and capture

  • Storage, risk assessment and monitoring

  • Economics

  • Legal aspects and public acceptance

Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research


Examples of storage projects

Examples of storage projects

2. Storage: examples

  • Sleipner, North Sea (saline reservoir)

  • In-Salah, Algeria (gas reservoir)

  • K12B, North Sea (gas reservoir)

  • Weyburn, Canada (oil reservoir)

  • Enhanced Coal Bed Methane projects

    • Alisson (New Mexico)

    • Recopol (Poland)


Introduction 4694016

Geological storage for CO2


Examples of geological storage of carbon dioxide

Examples of geological storage of Carbon dioxide


Zero emission concept by n p chistensen geus denmark

ZERO EMISSION CONCEPT (by N.P. Chistensen, GEUS, Denmark)


Reservoir and seals

Reservoir and seals

1. Geology: reservoirs

In general a reservoir consist of:

  • Porous and permeable rocks that can contain (a mixture of) gas and liquid

  • Rocks with pores of typically 5-30% of volume of the rock (with diameters of nm-mm)

  • A sealing by a non permeable rock layer

  • Typical Reservoir size is 0.05-50 km^3

Map of porosity distribution at cm-scale (right) and corresponding sandstone thin section (left)


Naturally occurring reservoirs

Naturally occurring reservoirs

1. Geology: reservoirs

  • Fresh water aquifer

  • Saline aquifer

  • Oil reservoir

  • Natural gas reservoir

  • CO2 reservoir


Introduction 4694016

Natural CO2 occurrences in France

Natural CO2 fields

Exploited carbogaseous waters (mineral water, spa)


Properties of geo fluids

Properties of geo-fluids

1. Geology: CO2 transport properties

  • All rocks in the crust contain fluids (water, oil, natural gas, CO2)

  • Transport of fluids depends on:

    • Density

    • Viscosity

    • Solvability

    • Miscibility


Desired fluid properties for co 2 storage

Desired fluid properties for CO2 storage

1. Geology: CO2 transport properties

  • High density

  • High viscosity

  • High solvability

  • High miscibility

    So: low temperature and high pressure


Immobilization and trapping options physical

Immobilization and trapping options: Physical

  • Physical blocking by

    • structural traps (anticlines, unconformities or faults)

    • stratigraphic traps (change in type of rock layer)

  • Hydrodynamic trapping by extremely slow migration rates of reservoir brine

  • Residual gas trapping by capillary forces in pore spaces

  • Negative buoyancy in case CO2 is denser than its host rock


Immobilization and trapping options chemical

Immobilization and trapping options: Chemical

1. Geology: trapping mechanisms

  • Adsorption onto coal or organic-rich shales: permanently reduced mobility

  • Mineralization into carbonate mineral phases: permanently reduced mobility

  • Solubility trapping: CO2 dissolved in formation waters forming one single phase: greatly reduced mobility


Site selection criteria

Site selection criteria

1. Geology: site selection


Advantages and disadvantages of storage sites

Advantages and disadvantages of storage sites

1. Geology: site selection

IEA, GHG, 2004


2 storage

2. Storage

  • Examples

  • Storage in coal seams: ECBM

  • Potential storage capacity

  • Ocean storage


Locations of c o 2 storage activities

2. Storage: examples

Locations of CO2 storage activities

Source: IPCC


Simplified diagram of the sleipner c o 2 storage project

Simplified diagram of the Sleipner CO2 storage project

2. Storage: examples

Source: IPCC


Characteristics sleipner

Characteristics Sleipner

2. Storage: examples

  • CO2 injection since 1996 (first commercial project)

  • Storage of CO2 in (shallower) saline aquifer together with production of natural gas

  • Aquifer consists of unconsolidated sandstone and thin (horizontal) shale layers that spreads CO2 laterally

  • Seal consists of an extensive and thick shale layer

  • ~1Mt CO2 removed from gas plant annually

  • Estimate of total stored CO2 over entire lifetime: 20 MtCO2

Source: IPCC/IPIECA


Location of in salah c o 2 storage project

Location of In Salah CO2storage project

2. Storage: examples


In salah c o 2 storage project

In Salah CO2 storage project

2. Storage: examples

  • First large scale CO2 storage in a gas reservoir

  • 1 Mt CO2 stored into the Krechba (sandstone) reservoir annually starting in April 2004

  • CO2 injected into water filled parts of gas reservoir (1.5 km)

  • Seal consists of thick layer of mudstones (shales)

  • 4 production and 3 injection wells

  • Use of long-reach horizontal wells

  • Produced natural gas contains up to 10% CO2

  • Estimate of total stored CO2 over entire lifetime: 17 Mt CO2

    Source: IPCC


Cross section in salah gas reservoir

Cross section In Salah gas reservoir

2. Storage: examples

Source: IPCC


Offshore location k12 b project

Offshore location K12-B project

2. Storage: examples

Source: TNO/CATO


Characteristics k12 b storage project

Characteristics K12-B storage project

2. Storage: examples

  • Nearly empty gas reservoir at 4 km depth

  • Reservoir rocks: Aeolian and fluvial sediments, with relatively low permeability

  • Tests for enhanced gas recovery: high miscibility of gas and CO2 results in mixing instead of a migrating front

  • Annual injection of 20 ktonne of CO2 to be up-scaled to 480 ktonne CO2/yr

Source: TNO


Weyburn storage project canada

Weyburn storage project, Canada

2. Storage: examples

  • Sedimentary Williston Basin of Mississippian carbonate oil reservoir

  • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

  • CO2 source is a coal gasification company, producing 95% pure CO2

  • CO2 injection since 2000

  • Estimate of total stored CO2 over entire lifetime: 20 Mt CO2

  • Seal consists of anhydrite and shale

Source: IPCC


Location of storage site and gasification plant and scheme for eor through c o 2 storage

Location of storage site and gasification plant and scheme for EOR through CO2 storage

2. Storage: examples

Source: IPIECA

Source: IPCC


Storage in coal seams

Storage in coal seams

2. Storage: ECBM


C o 2 storage in coal

CO2 storage in Coal

2. Storage: ECBM

  • Coal contains micro-pores (r = 0.4 – 1 nm) suitable for adsorption of gases, such as CO2 (r = ca. 0.3 nm)

  • Higher affinity to adsorb CO2 than CH4

  • One methane molecule can be replaced by at least two molecules of CO2: Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery (ECBM) of up to 95% extra gas recovery

  • Ratio CO2/CH4 depends on the maturity and type of coal

  • Coal plastization and swelling can occur due to the presence of CO2 and this reduces permeability

    Sources: Siemens Tudelft and IPCC


Influencing factors on coal adsorption

Influencing factors on coal adsorption

2. Storage: ECBM

  • Coal rank

    • Peat  lignite  bituminous coal  anthracite

    • Pore structure and size

    • Moist content (rank dependent)

  • Coal composition

    • Presence of different macerals and minerals

  • Moisture content

    • Water molecules block adsorption sites of pore system

  • pH change

  • Temperature

    • decreasing adsorption rates with increasing T

      Source: Siemens TUDelft


Introduction 4694016

2. Storage: ECBM

Problems related to CO2 injection

Swelling

  • CO2 acts as a solvent that destroys bonds of the coal macro molecules  relaxation of the coal structure

  • Under constrained reservoir conditions swelling causes a reduction of porosity and permeability (see figure)

Source Siemens Tudelft

Harpalani & Schaufnagel 1990


Example recopol european ecbm project

Example: Recopol European ECBM project

2. Storage: ECBM

  • EU co-funded research & demonstration project

  • Silesian Coal Basin of Poland

  • CO2 is pumped in coal seam at a depth of ~1km

  • Simultaneous production of methane

  • Injection and production started in 2004

  • Stimulation required because coal seam permeability reduces in time, presumably due to swelling from contact with the CO2


Introduction 4694016

2. Storage: ECBM

Location of Recopol ECBM project


Potential storage capacity

Reservoir type

Lower estimate of storage capacity (GtCO2)

Upper estimate of storage capacity (GtCO2)

Oil and gas fields

675a

900a

Unminable coal seams (ECBM)

3 - 15

200

Deep saline formations

1,000

Uncertain, but possibly 104

Potential storage capacity

2. Storage: potential capacity

a These numbers would increase by 25% if “undiscovered” oil and gas fields were included in this assessment.

Compare worldwide CO2 emissions: 25 GtCO2/yr

Source: IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage.


Ocean storage principles

Ocean storage principles

2. Storage: ocean

  • Ocean storage is injection of CO2 into the deep ocean water. At a dept of 2700 CO2 has a negative buoyancy.


Physical properties of co 2 in water

Physical properties of CO2 in water

2. Storage: ocean


Risks associated with co 2 storage in geological reservoirs

3. Risks and monitoring

Risks associated with CO2 storage in geological reservoirs

  • CO2 and/or CH4 leakage from the reservoir to the atmosphere

  • Micro-seismicity due to pressure and stress changes in the reservoir, causing small earth quakes and faults

  • Ground movement, subsidence or uplift due to pressure changes in the reservoir

  • Displacement of brine from an open reservoir to other formations, possibly containing fresh water

    Source: Damen et al


Co 2 and ch 4 leakage

CO2 and CH4 leakage

3. Risks and monitoring

Depends on thickness of overlying formations and trapping mechanisms and occurs when:

  • Inability of cap rock to prevent upward migration, due to:

    • too high permeability (possibility for diffusion of CO2)

    • dissolving of cap rock by reaction with CO2

    • cap rock failure (fracturing and faulting due to over pressuring of the reservoir)

  • Escape through (old) wells through:

    • Improper plugging

    • Diffusion through cement or steel casing

  • Dissolving of CO2 in fluid that flows laterally

    Source: Damen et al


  • Local and global effect of co 2 leakage

    3. Risks and monitoring

    Local and global effect of CO2 leakage

    • Local: Health effects at elevated CO2 concentration (accumulation of CO2 can occur in confined areas)

    • Local: Decrease of pH of soils and water, causing:

      • Calcium dissolution

      • Increase in hardness of the water

      • Release of trace metals

  • Global: leakage reduces the CO2 mitigation option, effect depends on stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration

    • Stabilization targets

    • Extend and timing of CO2 storage (simulation models)

  • Source: Damen et al


    Purpose of monitoring

    Purpose of monitoring

    3. Risks and monitoring

    • To ensure public health and safety of local environment

    • To verify the amount of CO2 storage

    • To track migration of stored CO2 (simulation models)

    • To confirm reliability of trapping mechanisms

    • To provide early warning of storage failure


    Examples of monitoring techniques

    Examples of monitoring techniques

    3. Risks and monitoring

    Measurements are repeated in time or applied continuously

    Source: Wildenborg, TNO


    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    5. Conclusion

    • There is a high worldwide storage capacity potential

    • Different types of reservoirs occur naturally

    • CO2 will be stored for a very long time (10000 yr)

    • There is a possibility for enhanced recovery of fuel from certain reservoirs

    • High pressure and low temperature are preferable for effective CO2 storage

    • Several storage projects have already started

    • Leakage and other risk should be monitored carefully


    Co2net lectures on carbon capture and storage3

    CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage

    • Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS

    • CO2 sources and capture

    • Storage, risk assessment and monitoring

    • Economics

    • Legal aspects and public acceptance

    Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research


    Performance new power plants current technology

    Cost of CCS

    Performance new power plants(current technology)

    *) Gas prices: 2.8-4.4 US$/GJ; Coal prices: 1-1.5 US$/GJ

    Source: IPCC SR-CCS, 2005


    Total production costs of electricity

    Cost of CCS

    Total production costs of electricity

    *) Gas prices: 2.8-4.4 US$/GJ; Coal prices: 1-1.5 US$/GJ

    Source: IPCC SR-CCS, 2005


    Co 2 transportation costs

    Cost of CCS

    CO2 transportation costs

    Transportation costs:

    1-8 US$ / tCO2 / 250 km

    (per 250 km, onshore and offshore)

    Source: IPCC, SR-CCS, 2005


    Cost co 2 storage

    Cost of CCS

    Cost CO2 storage

    Source: IPCC, SR-CCS, 2005


    Cost of electricity ct kwh

    Cost of CCS

    Cost of electricity (€ct/kWh)

    Kay Damen, Utrecht University


    Co2 benefits for eor

    CO2 benefits for EOR

    In Texas CO2 is commercially bought for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    The price paid for the CO2 is in this case depended on the price of oil:

    • 11.7 US$/tCO2 (at 18 US$ per barrel of oil)

    • 16.3 US$/tCO2 (at 25 US$ per barrel of oil)

    • 32.7 US$/tCO2 (at 50 US$ per barrel of oil)


    Conclusion economics of ccs

    Conclusion economics of CCS

    • The cost of CCS depends strongly on the source, location and technology

      (from slightly negative up to 100 €/ton)

    • In some cases CCS only needs few or no incentives

    • CCS can play significant role when CO2 prices become 25–30 US$/tCO2(IPCC)

    • Capture (and capital) cost are in general the biggest

    • The costs can be reduced in the future


    Co2net lectures on carbon capture and storage4

    CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage

    • Climate Change, sustainability and CCS

    • CO2 sources and capture

    • Storage, risk assessment and monitoring

    • Economics

    • Legal aspects and public acceptance

    Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research


    International treaties on waste

    International treaties on waste

    Protection of the seas:

    • London convention (1972)

    • London protocol (1996)

    • OSPAR (1992)

      Habitat protection

    • Convention on biological diversity (1992)

    • Habitat directive


    Conclusion co2 storage law

    Conclusion CO2 storage & law

    • In deep sea:

      • Not allowed (unless via land-based pipe)

    • Under seabed

      • possibilities but also restrictions (storage method, origin of CO2 and contamination CO2)

      • Legal issues still under debate

    • Under land

      • Depends on national law, but probably allowed

        For a smooth large scale implementation of CCS adoptions of the treaties have to be made.


    Liability

    Liability

    Liability questions not solved yet:

    • Who does own the stored CO2?

    • Who pays for the monitoring?

    • Who is responsible for long term leakages

    • ….


    Conclusion lecture

    Conclusion lecture

    To maintain public support:

    • Fair and open communication

    • (international) Legal frame work needs adaptations

    • Proper monitoring and risk management

    • CCS as a third option

    • The cost of CCS should be paid by the emitter on longer term


    Co2 emissions from trade union members 2005 tons

    CO2 emissions from Trade Union members, 2005 (tons/%)


    Co2 sources 100 000 tons in the baltic states

    CO2 sources >100 000 tons in the Baltic States


    Co2 sources 100 000 tons by trade union members in estonia

    CO2 sources >100 000 tons by Trade union members in Estonia


    Prospects for the baltic states

    Prospects for the Baltic States


    Introduction 4694016

    Properties of Cambrian reservoir in the Baltic states (GEOBALTICA project, S.Šliaupa)1-drinking water (salinity >1g/l, depth <500 m)2-table mineral water (salinity 1-10g/l); blue dot indicates water-work exploiting bottled mineral water (1.8-2 g/l)3-storage facilities, e.g. gas (porosity 20-30%,depth ~1 km, thickness ~100 m); 4-geothermal water (temperature >40°C) and balneological water (salinity >100g/l, Br>600mg/l); 5-geothermal anomaly (temperature >75°C, porosity ~5%, water salinity >170g/l, Br>600mg/l)6-oil prospects; 7-ongoing oil exploitation


    Geobaltica project data

    GEOBALTICA project data


    Geobaltica project data1

    GEOBALTICA project data


    Geobaltica project data2

    GEOBALTICA project data


    Next event of co2east project

    Next event of CO2EAST project

    • Carbon Capture and Storage – Response to Climate Change

    • Regional Workshop for CE and EE Countries27-28 February 2007 in Zagreb, CroatiaOrganised by:University of ZagrebFaculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum EngineeringPierottijeva 6, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia

    • Workshop web-site: www.co2neteast.rgn.hr(after 20 Dec. 2006)


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