The English Colonies

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The English Colonies

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1. The English Colonies Chapter 3

2. The Southern Colonies Chapter 3 – 1

4. Southern Colonies MD, VA, NC, SC, & GA Rich soil and warm climate made the southern colonies ideal for farming. Economy was based on agriculture and had no need for commerce or industry Main cash crops were tobacco and rice

5. Southern Colonies Most of the large Southern plantations were located in the Tidewater region. This region was flat, low plains along the sea coast. The rich southerners lived in this area The area west of the Tidewater region was the backcountry. This region was located close to the Appalachian Mountains. The poor southerners lived in this area

6. The Lost Colony of Roanoke

7. The Lost Colony of Roanoke The British made several attempts to establish a base on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean but failed many time. Queen Elizabeth gave Sir Walter Raleigh the right to claim any land in North America not already owned by a Christian monarchy.

9. Raleigh sent an expedition to look for a good place to settle. He decided to settle off the coast of North Carolina on Roanoke Island. In 1585, Raleigh sent about 100 men to settle on Roanoke Island. After a difficult winter on the island, the unhappy colonists returned to England. Two years later Raleigh tried again, sending 91 men, 17 women, and 9 children to Roanoke. John White, a mapmaker and artist, led the group.

11. The settlers needed many supplies. Soooo, White sailed to Britain for supplies to recruit more settlers He returned 3 years later. When White finally returned to Roanoke, he found it deserted. The only clue to the fate of the settlers was the word Croatoan carved on a tree.

13. Jamestown Settlement

14. One group of merchants, the Virginia Company of London, received a charter to organize a settlement in a region of America known as Virginia. The company sent 144 settlers in 3 ships to build a new colony in North America. Jamestown Settlement

15. Settlers objectives: Look for gold Establish trade in fish and furs 40 settlers died during the voyage. The ships entered the Chesapeake Bay and settled in an area in which they named Jamestown, in honor of King James I. The settlers built Jamestown on a peninsula Positives: so they could defend it from attack Negatives: swampy land full of mosquitoes very humid lacked good farmland surrounded by Native Americans.

17. The colonist were unaccustomed to hard labor. Settlers searched for gold and silver instead of growing food. disease and hunger became problems By January 1608, when ships arrived w/ additional men and supplies, only 38 of the 104 original colonist remained alive.

18. Governing Jamestown The colony survived its 2nd year under the leadership of John Smith. Smith instituted the “if you do not work, you do not eat” policy. Also, he managed to get corn from the Powhatan people.

19. The colonist barely survived the strict winter of 1609 – 1610, called the “starving time.” Trouble also broke out w/ the Native Americans. When new settlers arrived in May, they found only 60 survivors.

20. No gold and silver but they did figure out how to make $$$... TOBACCO! Tobacco was very popular in Europe. One colonist, John Rolfe, learned to grow a type of tobacco that was less bitter. John Rolfe married the daughter of the Powhatan Chief, Pocahontas. Relations w/ the Powhatan Indians improved

21. Daily Life in Virginia

22. Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy young planter, was a leader in the western part of VA. Some westerners settled in the forbidden lands and then blamed the government for not protecting them from Native American raids. In 1676, Bacon led the angry westerners in attacks on Native American villages. The governor declared Bacon a rebel. Bacon’s army marched to Jamestown, set fire to the capital, and drove the governor into exile (hiding). Only Bacon’s sudden illness and death stopped him from taking over VA. British troops helped the governor restore order and end the rebellion. This became known as Bacon’s Rebellion.

24. Catholics in Maryland

25. Catholics in Maryland Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, wanted to establish a safe place for his fellow Catholics, who were being persecuted in England. He also hoped that a colony would make him rich. Lord Baltimore died before creating this colony. His son, Cecilius Calvert took charge of the colony. Calvert later changed his name to the new Lord Baltimore.

26. To reduce tension among various groups, Lord Baltimore passed the Toleration Act of 1649. This act made it a crime to restrict the religious beliefs of Christians.

27. Settling the Carolinas

28. The Carolinas King Charles II issued two charters to create a colony. The colony was called Carolina, which means “Charles’s land.” North Farmers from VA settled in the northern parts of Carolina grew tobacco and sold timber and tar coast offered no good harbor… relied on VA South more prosperous fertile farmland and a good harbor. Rice became the colony’s leading crop. Indigo was discovered. Indigo is used to dye textiles (clothes).

30. Georgia

31. Georgia The leader of this colony was General James Oglethorpe. Created for English debtors Poor people to settle to make a fresh start military barrier between (British) South Carolina and Spanish Florida

32. The New England Colonies Chapter 3 - 2

34. Life in the Colonies New England Colonies Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, & Rhode Island Lived in organized towns Center of town was a meeting house (used for church and town meetings) Farming was main economic activity; cold weather in winter made farming difficult

35. New England Colonies Farmers grew only what their family could eat, didn’t have extra to sell or trade (this is known as subsistence farming) Everyone was required to work (men, women and children) Not everyone were farmers, some worked in mills, fishermen, or were shipbuilders

36. Massachusetts A demand for religious freedom! Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth

37. Protestants ( followers of the Anglican Church) Puritans wanted to change or reform the church. Pilgrims wanted to break away from it altogether and form a new church.

38. Plymouth

39. The Pilgrims journeyed to America in search of religious freedom in their ship, the Mayflower. The leader of the Pilgrims was William Bradford. They settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

40. The Pilgrims created the Mayflower Compact to create order in their colony In the Mayflower Compact, the Pilgrims: Pledged their loyalty to Britain Declared their intention of forming a government Promised to obey the laws passed for the good of the colony

42. In their first winter in America, almost ˝ of the Pilgrims died of malnutrition, disease, and cold. In the spring, a few Native Americans approached the settlement. Two of them, Squanto and Samoset, befriended the colonist showed them how to grow corn, beans, and pumpkin and Showed them where to hunt and fish. helped the Pilgrims make a treaty w/ the Native Americans who lived in the area

43. In the fall of 1621, the Pilgrims invited the Native Americans to celebrate the peace between them. During the feast, the Pilgrims thanked God for the harvest and for their survival. This was the first Thanksgiving in America!

44. Massachusetts Bay

45. Massachusetts Bay Some Puritans looked for a way to leave Britain because they were being persecuted by the king because of their religion. A group of Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony, North of Plymouth.

46. The Puritans wanted a society based on the Bible and their own beliefs. John Winthrop was chosen to be the governor. Winthrop led 1,000 men, women and children in 11 ships to Massachusetts Bay. Most of them settled in a place they called Boston. Winthrop wanted the Massachusetts Bay (Boston) colony to be “a city upon a hill.”

47. What did John Winthrop mean when he called Boston ‘A city upon a Hill’?

48. During the 1630s, religious persecution in Britain drove more than 15,000 Puritans to journey to Massachusetts. The Great Migration. The Puritans had come to America to put their religious beliefs into practice. Yet, they were unwilling to allow other religious groups the freedom to practice their beliefs. The Puritans persecuted people who held other religious view.

49. What is wrong with this action the Puritans were taking?

50. Connecticut

51. Connecticut Thomas Hooker didn’t like the way Massachusetts was being governed. So he left Massachusetts and created Connecticut He heard good reports of the Connecticut farmland. They adopted a plan of government called the Fundamental Order of Connecticut. This was the 1st written constitution in America.

52. Rhode Island

53. Rhode Island Roger Williams was a minister in Massachusetts. He believed: people should be free to follow any religious practices. the church and the government should be separate. wrong to take land from Native Americans.

54. The ideas of Roger Williams disturbed the Puritans so…….they banished him from the Massachusetts. Williams left Massachusetts and took refuge w/ the Native Americans. Williams received a charter for a colony E of Connecticut called Rhode Island.

55. Anne Hutchinson questioned the religious authority of the colony’s ministers. She also believed women should have more power. They saw her as a danger to the colony and put her on trial for heresy (criticizing church officials). She was found guilty and forced out of Massachusetts. She then moved to Rhode Island too.

56. New Hampshire John Wheelwright followed Roger Williams example. He left Massachusetts and founded New Hampshire so people could worship as they pleased.

57. The Middle Colonies Chapter 3 – 3

59. Middle Colonies NY, Penn, NJ, & Delaware Had better soil and milder climate than the New England colonies for farming. As a result of this, they grew large quantities of crops known as cash crops. Cash crops are crops that could be sold in all colonies and overseas. People also worked in industries (carpentry, flour making, lumber, & mining.)

60. New York

61. New York In 1660, Britain had 2 clusters of colonies, which were located in the New England Colonies (Northern) New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island Southern Colonies Virginia, Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina

62. Between the 2 groups of British colonies were lands that the Dutch (Netherlands) controlled. A group of Dutch merchants had formed the Dutch West India company to trade in the Americas. They sent people from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and Finland. Their main colony was named New Amsterdam.

63. The company gave a large estate to anyone who brought at least 50 settlers to work the land. The wealthy landowners who got these riverfront estates were called patroons. The patroons ruled like kings of their estates.

64. The British wanted to acquire the valuable Dutch colony that laid between Britain’s New England and Southern Colonies. So….. In 1664, the British sent a fleet to attack New Amsterdam (New York area). Peter Stuyvesant ruled the colony as governor. When British ships arrived to attack, the governor was unprepared for a battle and surrendered the colony.

65. King Charles II (Britain) gave the colony to his brother, the Duke of York, who renamed it New York. New Amsterdam, now called New York City, was one of the fastest-growing locations in the colony.

66. New Jersey

67. New Jersey The Duke of York (New York’s ruler) gave the southern part of his colony, to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. they called their colony New Jersey Berkely and Carteret hoped to make money from New Jersey by charging their settlers rent. How did they get people to settle in New Jersey? offered land promised freedom of religion trial by jury a representative assemble: every man could have a vote

68. Pennsylvania

69. Pennsylvania William Penn presented a plan to King Charles. Penn’s father had once lent the king a great deal of money. Pen had inherited the king’s promise to repay the loan. Instead of $$, however, Penn asked for land in America. The king gave Penn some land. The new colony was named Pennsylvania.

70. William Penn belonged to a Protestant group called the Society of Friends, or Quakers. The Quakers believed that people had an “inner light” that could guide them to salvation. church services and officials were unnecessary Everyone was equal in God’s eyes The Quakers were tolerant of the views of others. Many people thought the Quakers threatened traditions. For example: Quakers would not bow or take off their hats to lords and ladies because of their belief that everyone was equal.

71. William Penn personally designed Philadelphia, the “city of brotherly love.” Penn believed that the land belonged to Native Americans and that settlers should pay for it. Native Americans held Penn in such high regard that some moved to Pennsylvania.

72. To encourage European settlers to come to Pennsylvania, Pen advertised the colony throughout Europe w/ pamphlets in several languages. The southern part of Pennsylvania allowed the people to form their own legislature which eventually became Delaware.

73. Religion in the Colonies In the 1730s and 1740s, a religious revival called the Great Awakening swept through the colonies. In New England and the Middle Colonies, ministers called for “a new birth,” a return to the strong faith of earlier days. One of the outstanding preachers of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards.

75. Education in the Colonies

76. Public Education Communities established town schools in which to educate children in the New England Colonies. Education was very important here because settlers wanted to ensure that future generations would have educated ministers.

77. School children in New England used the New England Primer to learn to read. This book contained characters and stories from the Bible.

78. There were more schools in the New England Colonies than in other colonies. This was because children in the Middle and Southern colonies lived farther away from each other. These children had to be taught by their parents or by private tutors. Most colonial children stopped their education after the elementary grades. They were often needed to help work on the family farm, or the were sent away from home to work.

79. Higher Education Higher education was also important. Harvard College was founded in 1636. It was the first college in the Colonies. The second college founded in the colonies was William and Mary College. It was founded in Virginia in 1693. Both colleges are still in existence today.

80. By 1700, about 70 % of men and 45% of women in New England could read and write. The number was much lower in other colonies.

81. Colonial Economics

82. Mercantilism

83. Mercantilism England viewed the 13 colonies as an economic resource. The colonies provided England w/ raw materials and England made finished goods and sold the goods to the colonies. This process followed the economic theory of mercantilism. The goal of mercantilism is exporting more goods than what is being imported.

84. Exported goods – goods sold to other countries Imported goods – goods bought from other countries. Therefore, w/ mercantilism you had to make more money than you spent!

85. Triangular Trade

86. Some colonial trading ships went directly from the colonies to England and other European ports and back. However, others followed routes that came to be called the triangular trade. The triangular trade route is called this because the routes formed a triangle between the colonies, the West Indies, and Africa. Triangular Trade

87. The most inhumane aspect of the triangular trade was the shipping of enslaved Africans to the West Indies. This passage was known as the Middle Passage.

88. Goods Traded in the Colonies

89. Goods Traded in the Colonies New England colonies – NONE, only grew enough for their families Middle colonies – wheat, livestock, flour, and lumber Southern colonies – tobacco & rice (depended heavily on slave labor)

90. The Navigation Acts

91. The Navigation Acts To make certain that only England benefited from trade with the colonies, Parliament passed a series of laws called the Navigation Acts.

92. The Navigation Acts did the following: Only allowed the colonists to trade w/ Britain Colonial merchants could not send goods to England in foreign ships (even if the foreign ships were cheaper) Prohibited the colonist from sending certain products (sugar or tobacco) outside of England’s empire Some colonists ignored these laws and began smuggling (trading illegally) in Europe or in the West Indies.

93. Colonial Governments

94. As colonies grew, they had to rely on their own governments to make local laws. There were 3 types of colonial governments among the 13 colonies – charter, proprietary and royal.

95. Charter Colonies: Established by groups of settlers who had been given a grant of rights and privileges Elected their own governors and members of both houses of the legislature

96. Proprietary Colonies: Ruled by individuals or groups to whom England had granted land to (usually friends of the king) Given free rule by the king to rule as they wish

97. Royal colonies: King of England directly ruled all royal colonies Governor and legislature generally did what the British leaders wanted them to do

98. Headright System Large farms, called plantations, were established by tobacco farmers. Colonists who paid their way received 50 acres of land and 50 acres for each person they brought to Virginia.

99. Labor Most workers were indentured servants. Indentured servants were people who came to America for free by agreeing to work without pay for a set amount of time. Colonists began to rely on slave labor. The first Africans were brought as slaves and servants in 1619. Increased work and the falling cost of slaves led colonists to use more slave labor.

100. Voting Rights in the Colonies Only white men who owned land had the right to vote Neither women or indentured servants, nor landless and poor people, nor enslaved Africans could vote

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