Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy
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Thermodynamics of Exotic Matter and Energy. Sung-Won Kim (Ewha Womans University). Contents. Motivation Definition Examples Thermodynamics Summary and Further Problems. 1. Definition. Energy Conditions Strong energy conditions Weak energy conditions Null energy conditions.

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

Thermodynamics of Exotic Matter and Energy

Sung-Won Kim

(Ewha Womans University)

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Contents

Contents

  • Motivation

  • Definition

  • Examples

  • Thermodynamics

  • Summary and Further Problems

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1 definition

1. Definition

  • Energy Conditions

    • Strong energy conditions

    • Weak energy conditions

    • Null energy conditions

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

  • Weaker versions

    • AWEC

    • ANEC

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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2 examples

2. Examples

  • Wormhole

  • Negative energy: quantum inequality

    • Casimir effect

    • Hawking flux into hole

  • Dark energy

    • Quintessence

    • K-essence

    • Phantom energy:

  • Ghost field

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3 gravity

3. Gravity

  • Wormhole structure

  • Accelerated

    expansion

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Wormhole

Wormhole

= const.

embedded in higher

dimensional space

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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Accelerated expansion

Accelerated Expansion

Dark energy?

  • Quintessence

    • K-essence

    • Phantom energy:

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4 thermodynamics

4. Thermodynamics

  • Negative Energy

    • Violation of second law

  • Wormhole

    • Negative temperature?

  • Phantom Energy

    • Negative entropy or

      negative temperature?

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

4.1 Wormhole and Temperature

- Hong & Kim

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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4 2 dark energy and thermodynamics lima alcaniz plb 04

4.2 Dark energy and Thermodynamics - Lima & Alcaniz, PLB(04)

  • Acceleration(Adiabatic expansion)

    (particle current) (entropy current)

  • Perfect fluid

    : particle number density

    : specific entropy (per particle)

  • Gibbs law

  • Negative pressure

    • Expansion -> hotter

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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1/3

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

  • Generalized Stefan-Boltzmann law

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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  • If chemical potential is null - Thermodynamic 1st law

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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4 3 dark energy and thermodynamics 2 gonzalez diaz siguenza plb 04

4.3 Dark energy and Thermodynamics 2 - Gonzalez-Diaz & Siguenza, PLB(04)

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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Thermodynamics of exotic matter and energy

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Physical meaning of negative temperature

Physical meaning of negative temperature

  • The entropy of a phantom universe monotonically decreased if one would be able to add energy to that universe.

  • Negative temperature is not unphysical or meaningless

  • Systems with negative temperature have already been observed in the laboratory and interpreted theoretically

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Summary further problems

Summary & Further Problems

  • Summary

    • Exotic matter & energy

    • Thermodynamics

      • Negative entropy? or Negative temperature?

  • Further problems

    • What is the real exotic matter or energy?

    • What is the full thermodynamics of it?

    • Could not exist?

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