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Title. Scientific Literature Seminar on Attention and Inattentional Blindness Klaus P. Jantke [email protected] [email protected] We would like to widen our horizons. We would like to relate our own work to research in other disciplines.

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Title

Scientific Literature Seminar

on

Attention and

Inattentional Blindness

Klaus P. Jantke

[email protected]

[email protected]


  • We would like to widen our horizons.

  • We would like to relate our own work

  • to research in other disciplines.

  • Sometimes, perhaps, we get inspirations

  • for our own research and development.

  • Sometimes, perhaps, we get ideas of novel cooperation opportunities.

  • We may learn about other methodologies of research and development, other ways to see and to approach problems, other standards and other styles.

Motivation


Research in Cognitive Sciences on human attention in learning, at work, …

Topic

  • Issues studied in particular:

  • The importance of attention

  • How to attract the humans‘ attention?

  • What does attract attention?

  • Problems with attention



Manfred Spitzer in learning, at work, …

Lernen

Spektrum Akadem. Verlag, 2002

Attention as

a Gate Opener

for Learning

It is against state policy

to pave over a deer.

AP, 22.08.1996

S. B. Most, B. J. Scholl, E. R. Clifford, D. J. Simons

What You See Is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness

Psychological Review, 112, 2005, 217–242

Sources

K. Weide, C. Scheier

The visual impact of award-winning ads

Quirk’s Marketing Research Review 2005

V. Sundstedt, K. Debattista, A. Chalmers

Selective Rendering using Task-Importance Maps

APGV - Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, 2004, ACM, p. 175


V. Sundstedt, K. Debattista, P. Longhurst, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko

Visual Attention for Efficient High-Fidelity Graphics

Spring Conference on Computer Graphics (SCCG), 2005, 162--168

Sources

G. Rees, C. Russell, C. D. Frith, J. Driver

Inattentional Blindness Versus Inattentional Amnesia for Fixated But Ignored Words

Science 286, 1999, 2505-2507

J. Triesch, D. H. Ballard, M. M. Hayhoe, B. T. Sullivan

What you see is what you need

Journal of Vision 3, 2003, 86-94


P. E. Downing, D. Bray, J. Rogers, C. Childs Troscianko

Bodies capture attention when nothing is expected

Cognition 93, 2004, B27-B38

U. Neisser, R. Becklen

Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events

Cognitive Psychology 7, 1975, 480–494

Sources

D. J. Simons, C. F. Chabris

Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events

Perception, 28, 1999, 1059-1074

A. Mack, I. Rock

Inattentional Blindness

MIT Press 1998


A Wide Spectrum of Results Illustrated Troscianko

Imagine you are watching

a football game between,

say, Japan and England, ...

S. B. Most, B. J. Scholl, E. R. Clifford, D. J. Simons

What You See Is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness

Psychological Review, 112, 2005, 217–242

Results I

The Study:

100 probands watching faces (4 African American, 4 Caucasian) moving on a rectangular space in a haphazard way occasionally bouncing off display edges.

Task: counting number of bounces of one face type.

Unexpected event: One face moving straight from right to left over the scene.


A Wide Spectrum of Results Illustrated Troscianko

K. Weide, C. Scheier

The visual impact of award-winning ads

Quirk’s Marketing Research Review 2005

Results I

The Study:

Eye tracking on a variety of advertisements.

Award winning, but not very successful.


A Wide Spectrum of Results Illustrated Troscianko

Results I

Award winning and successful.


A Wide Spectrum of Results Illustrated Troscianko

Results I

Neither award winning nor successful.


A Wide Spectrum of Results Illustrated Troscianko

Results I

No award, but much success.


A Wide Spectrum of Results Illustrated Troscianko

V. Sundstedt, K. Debattista, A. Chalmers

Selective Rendering using Task-Importance Maps

APGV - Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, 2004, ACM, p. 175

V. Sundstedt, K. Debattista, P. Longhurst, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko

Visual Attention for Efficient High-Fidelity Graphics

Spring Conference on Computer Graphics (SCCG), 2005, 162--168

Results I

The Work:

Rendering frames of videos with different quality in different places.


J. Triesch, D. H. Ballard, M. M. Hayhoe, B. T. Sullivan Troscianko

What you see is what you need

Journal of Vision 3, 2003, 86-94

Studying attention and inattentional blindness in virtual reality environments

Results II


The Study Troscianko:

Pick up the bricks from front to back and put them on one conveyor belt.

Pick up the tall bricks first and the short bricks afterwards. Put them all on one belt.

Pick up the tall bricks first and put them on the closer belt. Then pick up the short bricks and put them on the next belt.

Results II


Occasionally, bricks were changing their height during manipulation …

Results II

percentage of changes recognized

number of subjects noticing a certain percentage of changes



Occasionally, bricks were changing their height during manipulation …

Summed times spent fixating the brick during put-down when either no change occurred, a change was unnoticed, or the change was noticed, for the three different task conditions.

Results II


S. B. Most, B. J. Scholl, E. R. Clifford, D. J. Simons manipulation …

What You See Is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness

Psychological Review, 112, 2005, 217–242

P. E. Downing, D. Bray, J. Rogers, C. Childs

Bodies capture attention when nothing is expected

Cognition 93, 2004, B27-B38

Results II


P. E. Downing, D. Bray, J. Rogers, C. Childs manipulation …

Bodies capture attention when nothing is expected

Cognition 93, 2004, B27-B38

Results II

Participants were instructed to judge whether the vertical or horizontal arm of the cross

was longer.


P. E. Downing, D. Bray, J. Rogers, C. Childs manipulation …

Bodies capture attention when nothing is expected

Cognition 93, 2004, B27-B38

Results II


U. Neisser, R. Becklen manipulation …

Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events

Cognitive Psychology 7, 1975, 480–494

D. J. Simons, C. F. Chabris

Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events

Perception, 28, 1999, 1059-1074

Classics


D. J. Simons, C. F. Chabris manipulation …

Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events

Perception, 28, 1999, 1059-1074

Classics


The results reported are consistent with many other experiments and with some of our own experiences.

Some results are surprising and, perhaps, counter-intuitive.

There are several myths in business and in literature (the Z pattern, e.g.). Science may clarify those issues.

Inattentional blindness (IB) is a serious problem and may have severe impact. There is no way, in general, to avoid IB.

Discussion


The following remarks are my very own conclusions. experiments and with some of our own experiences.

Although working in computer science, we can learn a lot from cognitive sciences.

Everybody engaged in teaching should know about attention and related issues like IB.

Everybody engaged in teaching should know about attention and related issues like IB.

Sometimes, we might derive practical conclusions from the results of other disciplines.

Conclusion


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