International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel
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International Safety Standards for the Storage of Spent Fuel. PHIL METCALF International Conference on Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors Vienna 31 May – 4 June 2010. Developments since 1994. Safety standards developments Increased enrichment Increased burn up

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International Safety Standards for the Storage of Spent Fuel

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International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

International Safety Standards forthe Storage of Spent Fuel

PHIL METCALF

International Conference on Management of

Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors

Vienna 31 May – 4 June 2010


Developments since 1994

Developments since 1994

  • Safety standards developments

  • Increased enrichment

  • Increased burn up

  • Advanced fuel design

  • MOX

  • Re-racking

  • Burn up credit

  • Storage > design lifetimes


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

Storage of Spent

Nuclear Fuel

Safety Case & Assessment Predisposal

DS 248


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

  • Government responsibilities

  • National policy & strategy

  • Regulatory responsibilities

  • Operator responsibilities

  • Safety/Security

  • Interdependences

  • Management systems

  • Waste minimization

  • Characterization and classification

  • Waste treatment

  • Waste storage

  • Waste acceptance for processing, storage and/or disposal

  • Prepare safety case and supporting safety assessment

  • Safety case scope and regulatory compliance

  • Safety case documentation

  • Periodic safety review

  • Facilities location and design

  • Facility construction and commissioning

  • Facilities operation, maintenance, emergency preparedness

  • Decommissioning

  • Nuclear safeguards

  • Existing facilities


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

Storage of Spent

Nuclear Fuel

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PROTECTION OF HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

3. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

GENERAL

GOVERNMENT

OPERATOR

SAFEGUARDS & PHYSICAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS

4. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION

5. SAFETY CASE AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT

DOCUMENTATION OF THE SAFETY CASE

6. GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR STORAGE OF SPENT FUEL

GENERAL

DESIGN

COMMISSIONING

OPERATION

DECOMMISSIONING


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

APPENDICES

I SPECIFIC SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS WET & DRY STORAGE

II CONDITIONS FOR SPECIFIC FUEL TYPES

ANNEXES

I SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM STORAGE

II OPERATIONAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS FOR WET AND DRY STORAGE

III EXAMPLES OF OPERATING PROCEDURES

IV RELATED IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS PUBLICATIONS

V SAFETY ASSESSMENT (EXTERNAL NATURAL PHENOMENA)

VI SAFETY ASSESSMENT (EXTERNAL HUMAN INDUCED PHENOMENA)

VII POSTULATED INITIATING EVENTS (INTERNAL PHENOMENA)


General

GENERAL

  • May be considered waste or resource – safety issues the same – differing circumstances;

    • Open fuel cycle – direct disposal

    • Closed fuel cycle – reprocessing

    • Uncertain

    • All involve storage – months to decades

    • Sometimes uncertain lifetime

    • Wet or dry storage (facility or casks)


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

  • Safety ensured by:

    • Containment of radionuclides

    • Criticality safety

    • Heat removal

    • Radiation shielding

    • Inspection and retrievability

  • Functions ensured by

    • Proper siting/location

    • Design

    • Construction and commissioning

    • Operation

    • Decommissioning (considered in design)


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

  • Storage not ultimate solution

  • Requires end point e.g. reprocessing or disposal to ensure safety

  • NPP design lifetime - few decades

  • +/-50 y experience of storage

  • +/-100 years design lifetimes used

  • Considering rate of industrial and institutional change, periods beyond 50 y deemed ‘long term’ in the context of this Safety Guide


Objective

OBJECTIVE

  • Up-to-date guidance on design, operation and safety case for all storage facilities

  • Consider different fuel types NPP & RRs

  • Different periods, including > design lifetime

  • Guidance to meet Safety Requirements:

    • Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities

    • Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste

    • Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities

    • Management System for Facilities and Activities


Scope

SCOPE

  • Co-located

  • Own sites

  • Not specifically operational storage

  • Water cooled, others e.g. gas cooled, RR

  • Degraded or failed fuel in canisters

  • No detailed guidance on physical protection

  • Security/safeguards interactions


Basic safety standards

Basic Safety Standards

  • Workers and public

  • Present and future generations

  • Normal and accident conditions

  • Justification

  • Dose and risk limitation - constraints

  • Optimization of protection


Safety case

Safety Case

DS 248

Safety Case & Assessment Predisposal


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

Assessments

 Stakeholder & Regulatory Involvement 

  • Safety Case Context

  • Safety objectives

  • Safety principles

  • Regulations

  • Safety Strategy

  • Waste treatment, minimization

  • Interdependencies

  • Shielding, containment,

  • Defence in depth

 Management System 

Management of uncertainty

System Description

Site and waste characteristics, Safety Functions, Design Options

Iteration and design optimozatio

Management

System

Non radiological

Environmental

Impact

Non-radiological

Operational Safety

Site / Engineering

Radiological impact

Scenarios

Models

Calculations

Limits, controls & conditions

Integration of Safety Arguments

Normal operation, anticipated operational ocurrences, accidents,

waste treatment and waste product


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Guidance on:

    • Roles and responsibilities

    • Design

    • Operation

    • Decommissioning

    • Safety case

  • Need for inter-comparison and harmonization of use


International safety standards for the storage of spent fuel

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