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The Prospect of Zero GHG Emission Cars Prof. David R. Hodas Widener University School of Law Wilmington DE Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation Symposium: LIVING ON A FINITE EARTH: Energy Law and Policy for a New Era October 10, 2008 School of Law University of Oregon

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The prospect of zero ghg emission cars l.jpg

The Prospect of Zero GHG Emission Cars

Prof. David R. Hodas

Widener University School of Law

Wilmington DE

Journal of EnvironmentalLaw and Litigation

Symposium: LIVING ON A FINITE EARTH: Energy Law and Policy for a New Era

October 10, 2008

School of Law

University of Oregon


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  • Transportation uses 70% of U.S. oil consumption

  • Last week (Oct 3) the U.S. imported (net of exports)12.9 million barrels of petroleum per day (gross imports were14 million)(this translates into > 4.7 billion bbls per year)

  • @$100/bll U.S the cost of these imports is about $1.29 billion per day or $470 billion per year.

  • U.S. consumes about 43% of the world’s gasoline (2003 data)


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  • In 2006 transportation in the U.S. cars account for 1.99 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions

    • Petroleum: 1.952 billion (gasoline’s share is 1.19 billion mt)

    • Electricity for transportation: 5.2

    • Natural gas: 32.5

  • U.S. electricity production from fossil fuels accounts for 2.344 billion tons of CO2 per year.

  • Together (3.534 billion mt), U.S. gasoline use and electricity generation comprise about 60% of U.S. CO2 emissions or just under 14% of global CO2 emissions


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Plug-in Vehicles billion metric tons of CO

V2G Slides provided by Prof. Willett Kempton,

University of Delaware


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Vehicle to Grid billion metric tons of CO

Arrows indicate direction of power flow


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V2G Basic Math billion metric tons of CO

  • Average car driven 1 hour/day, thus, time parked is 23 hours/day; Daily average travel: 32 miles, storage for 100 - 250 miles

  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW

  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA)

  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...

  • Power of fleet is >3x generation; >8x load !


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Electric Markets billion metric tons of CO

  • Initial markets (high value, low impact on battery, no system changes):

    • Regulation (“Frequency regulation”)

    • Spinning reserves

    • Intrahour adjustment

  • Larger but more challenging markets

    • Peak power

    • UPS for the distribution system


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ACE, Area Control Error, ~0.5% of control area load

Grid operators send frequent signals to on-line generators (equipped with AGC) to either increase or decrease output.

MW

Aggregate Daily Load Curve

Time of Day

from Letendre et al 2006


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Average Annual Market Clearing Prices: Regulation billion metric tons of CO

January 30, 2008



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Basic per Vehicle Values billion metric tons of CO

10 –Year Present Value V2G Revenue Potential

Assumptions: 80% availability, Reg. $40/MW-h, Spin. $10/MW-h, 7% discount rate, example calculations


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Vehicle Monitoring billion metric tons of CO

  • Automated data collection while grid-connected and while driving

  • Power from grid to vehicle (-kW) and from vehicle to grid (+kW)

  • AGC regulation signal from PJM (+-kW)

  • State of charge (%)

  • Wind backup: wind output vs. modelled vehicle fleet charge/discharge


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EV/PHEV Design Tradeoffs billion metric tons of CO

  • Batteries expensive; motor expensive

  • High line-current gives fast charge, roadside recharge; adds only moderate cost if done right

  • Regulation income directly proportional to line power!

  • Line power limits:

    • Size of plug, circuit, service

    • Energy/time = kWh/dispatch


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How many cars for an A/S contract? billion metric tons of CO

  • PJM minimum A/S contract: 1 MW

  • CalISO minimum A/S contract: 1 MW

  • Assume 2/3 availability (1/3 unavailable because driving, battery at wrong SOC, etc

  • Calculation: 2/3 availability means ... ___ kW/car * ___ cars * 2/3 = ___ MW

    • for 1 MW at 15 kW, need 100 cars

    • for 1 MW at 1.5 kW, need 1000 cars


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Vision billion metric tons of CO

  • One-half vehicle fleet is electric drive (BEV + PHEV). National security & environment benefits.

  • Lots of storage on the electric system, near loads.

  • Electric system storage is dispatchable by ISO/TSO and/or load serving entity.

  • Electric grid is more stable and reliable, A/S is abundant and less expensive

  • Intermittent renewables can be a much higher fraction of the generation mix.


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Legal and Policy Questions billion metric tons of CO

  • How shift investment strategy in a deregulated electric system to renewable electricity linked to V2G

  • Infrastructure: parking lots, transmission capacity, distribution networks

  • Federal or state regulation? Link to climate change incentives, caps

  • Smart meter laws, aggregation design

  • Contract and business plan design, taxation, ownership, utility integration

  • Other potential issues?


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Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Car Consortium billion metric tons of CO

  • Partners

    • University of Delaware

    • PHI: Delmarva Power, Atlantic Electric, PEPCO, etc

    • ACUA

    • PJM

    • AC Propulsion

    • Comverge

  • Observers

    • Tesla Motors

    • Google.org

    • State of Delaware (DEDO, PSC, Energy Office)

    • anon

http://www.magicconsortium.org


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