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Aerial View of Chilean Coast after 1960 Tsunami, showing tsunami damage and wave extent. Two hundred deaths were reported and total property damage from the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami in Chile was $417 million
Aftermath of 1960 Chilean Tsunami in Hilo, HI where 61 deaths and $23 million in damage occurred. Parking meters were bent by the force of the debris-filled waves.
small amplitude in open ocean
large amplitude in shallow water
Formation of a tsunami by sudden offset of the seafloor. Wave has low amplitude as it travels in the deep sea, and grows as tsunami enters shallow water and approaches the land
Tsunami Magnitude (Mt)The tsunami magnitude, or Mt, is a number used to compare sizes of tsunamis generated by different earthquakes and calculated from the logarithm of the maximum amplitude of the tsunami wave measured by a tide gauge distant from the tsunami source.
Damage Resulting from 1964 Tsunami in Alaska (March 27, 1964). View of the north end of Resurrection Bay at Seward, Alaska, about 75 km from the epicenter.
Extent of tsunami
Aerial view of Valdez, Alaska, showing the extent of inundation along coastline. During the earthquake, the shaking caused failure of the unstable, water-saturated material, and a slice, approximately 1,220 m long and 183 m wide, slid into the sea and carried the dock area and portions of the town with it. The slide generated a wave which slammed into the waterfront within two to three minutes of the onset of the earthquake. This wave demolished what was left of the waterfront facilities, caused the loss of the fishing fleet, and penetrated about two blocks into the town. Property damage of $15 million was incurred at Valdez and there were 30 fatalities.
Surge Wave Produced by 1964 Alaska Earthquake Surge wave left a 2 x 12 in. plank in a truck tire at Whittier, Alaska. Whittier incurred $10 million in property damage (1964 dollars). One of the waves, probably the same one that caused the major damage in Whittier, reached a height of 31.7 m above low tide.
At 7:16 p.m. on September 1, 1992, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 generated a tsunami with waves between eight and fifteen meters high that struck twenty-six towns along 250 km of Nicaragua's Pacific coast. More than 40,000 people were affected by the loss of their homes or means of income. The waves left 116 dead, 63 missing, and another 489 injured. Tsunami inundation of 1,000 meters was reported at Masachapa, where at least 15 people were killed.
The tsunami damage at El Tranisto, (population 1,000), the area most devastated by the tsunami in Nicaragua. Sixteen people were killed (14 children and two elderly men) and 151 were injured. More than two hundred houses (nearly all the houses in El Tranisto) were destroyed by waves that reached more than nine meters at this site.
Structures at El Popoyo, Nicaragua Structures at El Popoyo, where fifteen people lost their lives. Waves at this location reached a height of 5.6 m. One wall and a foundation are all that remain of a house that was entirely removed by the tsunami at El Popoyo, Nicaragua.
On December 12, 1992 at 05:29 UT a 7.8 surface wave magnitude earthquake occurred in the Flores region of Indonesia (8 degrees 31' S, 121 degrees 54' E). Flores Island is located about 1,800 km east of Jakarta. The death toll as a result of the combined earthquake and tsunami effects was more than two thousand. This includes 1,490 at Maumere and 700 on Babi Island. (About one-half of the deaths were attributed to the tsunami.) More than 500 people were seriously injured and 90,000 left homeless. In addition, 28,118 houses, 785 school buildings, 307 mosques, and 493 store and office buildings were destroyed or damaged. Nineteen people were killed and 130 houses were destroyed on Kalaotoa. Severe damage occurred at Maumere with 90 percent of the buildings destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami. Damage also occurred on Sumba and Alor. Tsunami inundation of 300 meters with wave heights of 25 meters were reported on Flores Island along with landslides and ground cracks at several locations around the island.
A sandy beach is all that remains after the waves removed all trace of Riangkroko. An extremely large tsunami runup (26 m) was measured at this small rural village on Flores Island, and 137 people lost their lives to the earthquake and the tsunamis. The inundation distance from the shoreline along the river is approximately 600 m.
A view of the complete devastation of Pagaraman, on Babi Island. Due to strong earth shaking and tsunami waves, about 700 people were reported killed and more than 100 were reported missing. This area had the largest death toll of any location for this event. Eyewitnesses described gruesome scenes including human remains suspended from tree branches.
Tsunami Generated by Earthquake of April 1, 1946, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Tsunami breaking over Pier No. 1 in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii. The man in the foreground became one of the 159 fatalities in the Hawaiian Islands from the tsunami. The photograph was taken from the Brigham Victory which was in the harbor at the time of the event. The ship was caught by the waves and tossed about but was able to use its own power to avoid the reefs and get past the breakwater to the open sea.
A view of tsunami and related fire damage on southeast Okushiri Island in the community of Aonae. Numerous fires broke out following the tsunami, adding to the property loss and misery. More than 120 people were killed in Japan (Okushiri and Hokkaido Islands) by the tsunami.
Fishing boat (configured for catching squid) is beached high and dry near a damaged fire truck.
High water marks are clearly evident on the side of this partially damaged house. Runup in this area was measured at five meters.
A large seventy-meter-long barge was moved seventy-five meters from the harbor by the flooding tsunami waves. The crane on the barge is used to lift concrete dolos from the nearby fabricating area to breakwaters and protective bulkheads surrounding the harbor area.
Three sequential photos show the arrival of a major wave at Laie Point on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, about 3,600 km from the source. The 8.3 earthquake of March 9, 1957 occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated a 8-m tsunami that did great damage on Adak Island, especially to the fuel and oil docks. However, the Hawaiian Islands incurred the greatest damage (about $5,000,000 in 1957 dollars). The highest wave was 16 m at Haena, Kauai.