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Ca10(PO4)6 (OH)2+2F- → Ca10(PO4)6F2 + 2(OH)-
enamel hydroxyapatite + fluoride fluorapatite + hydroxyl
Dental Mineral = carbonated apatite
Most soluble in acid
Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the acid solubility ranking of dentally relevant minerals (18).
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 = hydroxyapatite
Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 = fluorapatite
pH7 Ｈ＋ +F-ＨF
Fig. 6. Schematic representation of fluoride entering a bacterial cell in the form of HF at lower pH values, dissociating, and thereby providing H+ and F- ions inside the cell.
pH4.5 Ｈ＋ +F-ＨF
(0.9% fluoride ion)
(2% fluoride ion)
(1.23% fluoride ion)
1ppm[F-] = 1 mgF/l
= 1x10─4 %F
Calcium phosphate +Fluoride
Fig. 4. Schematic representation of demineralization and Remineralization processes
which lead to remineralized crystals with surfaces rich in fluoride and of low solubility
SnF2 are acidic, with a pH 2.4 – 2.8
Application : once every 6 months.