The Status of Women in the Hellenistic Period. Aristophanes and Plato revisited (pp. 113-119) Primary Source Section (handout) Pomeroy 120-148. Classical Greece. Aristophanes (from Lysistrata ) on bublious ♀. CLEONICE Well, what oath shall we take then?
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Aristophanes and Plato revisited (pp. 113-119)
Primary Source Section (handout)
CLEONICE Well, what oath shall we take then?
LYSISTRATA Listen to me. Let\'s set a great black bowl on the ground; let\'s sacrifice a skin of Thasian wine into it, and take oath not to add one single drop of water.
LAMPITO Ah! that\'s an oath pleases me more than I can say.
LYSISTRATA Let them bring me a bowl and a skin of wine.
CLEONICE Ah! my dears, what a noble big bowl! what fun it will be to empty it.
LYSISTRATA Set the bowl down on the ground, and lay your hands on the victim. ....Almighty goddess, Persuasion, and thou, bowl, boon comrade of joy and merriment, receive this our sacrifice, and be propitious to us poor women!
CLEONICE (as LYSISTRATA pours the wine into the bowl) Oh! the fine red blood! how well it flows!
LAMPITO And what a delicious bouquet, by Castor!
CLEONICE Now, my dears, let me swear first, if you please.
LYSISTRATA.... Ah! here comes Lampito. (LAMPITO, a husky Spartan damsel, enters with three others, two from Boeotia and one from Corinth.) Good day, Lampito, dear friend from Lacedaemon. How well and handsome you look! what a rosy complexion! and how strong you seem; why, you could strangle a bull surely!
LAMPITO Yes, indeed, I really think I could. It\'s because I do gymnastics and practise the bottom-kicking dance.
CLEONICE (opening LAMPITO\'S robe and baring her bosom) And what superb breasts!
LAMPITO La! you are feeling me as if I were a beast for sacrifice.
LYSISTRATA And this young woman, where is she from?
LAMPITO She is a noble lady from Boeotia.
LYSISTRATA Ah! my pretty Boeotian friend, you are as blooming as a garden.
CLEONICE (making another inspection) Yes, on my word! and her "garden" is so thoroughly weeded too!
LYSISTRATA Yet, look you, when the women are summoned to meet for a matter of the greatest importance, they lie in bed instead of coming.
CLEONICE Oh! they will come, my dear; but it\'s not easy, you know, for women to leave the house. One is busy pottering about her husband; another is getting the servant up; a third is putting her child asleep or washing the brat or feeding it.
LYSISTRATA But I tell you, the business that calls them here is far and away more urgent.
CLEONICE And why do you summon us, dear Lysistrata? What is it all about? LYSISTRATA About a big thing.
CLEONICE And is it thick too?
LYSISTRATA Yes, very thick.
CLEONICE And we are not all on the spot! Imagine!
LYSISTRATA (wearily) Oh! if it were what you suppose, there would be never an absentee. No, no, it concerns a thing I have turned about and about this way and that so many sleepless nights.
CLEONICE (still unable to be serious) It must be something mighty fine and subtle for you to have turned it about so!
LYSISTRATA So fine, it means just this, Greece saved by the women!
CLEONICE By the women! Why, its salvation hangs on a poor thread then!
Plato 427-347 BCE
Socrates 469-399 BCE
S: Are dogs divided into hes and shes, or do they both share equally in hunting and in keeping watch and in the other duties of dogs? or do we entrust to the males the entire and exclusive care of the flocks, while we leave the females at home, under the idea that the bearing and suckling their puppies is labour enough for them?
G: No, they share alike; [451e] the only difference between them is that the males are stronger and the females weaker.
S: But can you use different animals for the same purpose, unless they are bred and fed in the same way?
G: You cannot.
S: Then, if women are to have the same duties as men, [452a] they must have the same nurture and education?
S: The education which was assigned to the men was music and gymnastic.
S: Then women must be taught music and gymnastic and also the art of war, which they must practice like the men?
G: That is the inference, I suppose.
S: Can you mention any pursuit of mankind in which the male sex has not all these gifts and qualities in a higher degree than the female? Need I waste time in speaking of the art of weaving, and the management of pancakes [455d] and preserves, in which womankind does really appear to be great, and in which for her to be beaten by a man is of all things the most absurd?
G: You are quite right in maintaining the general inferiority of the female sex: although many women are in many things superior to many men, yet on the whole what you say is true.
S: And if so, my friend, there is no special faculty of administration in a state which a woman has because she is a woman, or which a man has by virtue of his sex, but the gifts of nature are alike diffused in both; all the pursuits of men are the pursuits of women also, [455e] but in all of them a woman is inferior to a man.
G: Very true.
S: You will admit that the same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for [456d] their original nature is the same?
S: I should like to ask you a question.
G: What is it?
S: Would you say that all men are equal in excellence, or is one man better than another?
G: The latter.
S: And in the commonwealth which we were founding do you conceive the guardians who have been brought up on our model system to be more perfect men, or the cobblers whose education has been cobbling?
G: What a ridiculous question! [456e]
S: You have answered me: Well, and may we not further say that our guardians are the best of our citizens?
G: By far the best.
S: And will not their wives be the best women?
G: Yes, by far the best.
S: And can there be anything better for the interests of the State than that the men and women of a State should be as good as possible?
G: There can be nothing better.
S: And this is what the arts of music and gymnastic, [457a] when present in such manner as we have described, will accomplish?
S: Then we have made an enactment not only possible but in the highest degree beneficial to the State?
S: Then let the wives of our guardians strip, for their virtue will be their robe, and let them share in the toils of war and the defence of their country; only in the distribution of labours the lighter are to be assigned to the women, who are the weaker natures, [457b] but in other respects their duties are to be the same.
Coin of Philip II of Macedon, racing biga (345 BCE)
His group of followers continued to profess his beliefs even after his death, including the explanation that “man’s public role was analogous to his place in the family – a microcosm of the patriarchal state.” (131)
Aristotle 383-382 BCE
1) Erinna, from island near Rhodes, 4th century B.C.E., poems about her childhood and her friend Baucis.
2) Anyte, from Tegea in Peloponnese, about 300 B.C.E., epigrams for men, women, animals, dedications, pastorals.
3) Nossis, from Locri in south Italy, 3rd century, epigrams to goddesses and dedications by and for women; mentions Sappho and Eros
4) Moero, c. 300 B.C.E., dedication to vine cluster, hexameters of Pleiades who had served baby Zeus.
Epitaphs, votive inscriptions, amatory verses, clever or informational poems, descriptions of works of art, versified reflections on life and morality, convivial pieces for symposia, abusive or satirical verses
Barberina Faun (220 BCE)
Men in the Gymnasium
Woman playing the flute
Her argument of the Pythagorean/Platonic theory of difference:
Evidence of her assertions The Republic (96):