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Tajikistan: Lindsay Furmanek Crisis of Drug Trafficking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Tajikistan: . Crisis of Drug Trafficking. Lindsay Furmanek. Introduction. Smallest of 15 former republics of Soviet Union Located in Central Asia- borders Afghan., Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China 54,000 Sq.Miles - landlocked 93% is mountainous terrain

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Crisis of Drug Trafficking

Lindsay Furmanek


  • Smallest of 15 former republics of Soviet Union

    • Located in Central Asia- borders Afghan., Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China

    • 54,000 Sq.Miles - landlocked

    • 93% is mountainous terrain

    • Roughly size of WI


Mountain ranges
Mountain Ranges

  • 3 Prominent Mountain Ranges

    • Pamir (border w/ China)

    • Alay

    • Tian Shan


Pamir mountains
Pamir Mountains

Excellent ski resorts in Pamirs

Sarez lake
Sarez Lake

Sarez Lake

-result of an earthquake

The people
The People

  • Total Population - 6.2 million

  • Majority of people are Tajiks

    • Uzbeks, Russians (mostly in capital of Dushanbe)

    • Tajik minority in northern Afghanistan

The people1
The People

  • Tajiks divided in to 2 major social groups:

    • The Lowland Tajiks/Southern Tajiks

    • The Mountain/Pamir Tajiks

The people2
The People

  • 80% Sunni Muslim

  • Also smaller population of Shiites

  • Russian Orthodox/Small Jewish and Christian communities

  • Tajik laguage -Iranian/Farsi (based on Persian Dialects)

  • The only ex-soviet state to use Arabic script

  • Wide use of Russian in the state administration and Business

Farsi words in english
















Farsi words in English

The silk road
The Silk Road

  • The Silk Road carried riches from the Orient to Europe. The prosperity of the road belongs to history, but its ancient promotion of east-west cultural exchange and the many historical relics it left behind are still very vivid.

The economy
The Economy

  • Poorest of former USSR

  • Economy built on Agriculture

    • Employs 2/5 of labor force

    • Cotton - most important crop

    • Economy severely weakened from 6 yr. civil war

  • Industry

    • Lg. Aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, small factories

Brief history
Brief History

  • Constant Invasions

    • 7th century - Arabs(enforced Islamic religion)

    • 12th century - Mongols

    • 15th century - Uzbeks

    • Afghan civil wars have

      spilled over

Brief history1
Brief History

  • Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic within USSR – Russian empire took control (1976) - had full control by end of 19th century

  • Independence in 1991

  • Civil War (1992-1997)

Tajik civil war
Tajik Civil War

  • The Tajik civil war involved:

    • The government of President Imomali Rakhmonov vs. United Tajik Opposition (UTO)

    • In May 1992, the Tajik opposition seized power from the Tajik Supreme Soviet (parliament), precipitating civil war

    • The opposition was defeated in December 1992 and the current Tajik government assumed control

Tajikistan civil war
Tajikistan Civil War

  • The defeated opposition was: a coalition of self-declared democratic and Islamic groups and Islamic fundamentalists and Pamiris - (traditionally underrepresented in the ruling coalitions during Soviet and pre-Soviet rule)

  • The winning coalition was: supported by Russian, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and Uzbek forces

  • Tajikistan remains in the hands of a largely authoritarian government, although it has established some nominally democratic structures

Effects of civil war
Effects of Civil War

  • Tajikistan is strongly affected by the consequences of the civil war:

    • Human Losses (1% of Population-60,000 deaths)

    • Material Losses ($7 billion-18 yrs GDP)

    • Socio-Political effects (1 of 6 Tajiks displaced)

    • Moral and psychological consequences (civilian violence, terrorism)

    • collapse of the national economy

Effects on the economy


GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion

GDP - real growth rate: 12%

GDP per capita:



GDP: purchasing power parity- $7.3 billion

GDP - real growth rate: 5.1%

GDP - per capita:


Population below poverty line: 80%

Effects on the Economy

Effect on the economy
Effect on the Economy

  • dramatic increase in the poverty of the population

  • The unemployment rate in major towns in southern Tajikistan is 60-80%

  • 30% of the population is dependent on the illicit drug business

Effects of civil war1
Effects of Civil War

  • involvement of many poor citizens of Tajikistan in illicit drug trafficking and other criminal activities

  • drastic increase in the flow of illegal narcotics across long Afghanistan border.

A current issue
A Current Issue

  • Drug Trafficking

  • Opium and heroin

    • opium transformed into refined heroin

  • Tajikistan faces security problem with 1,400-kilometer mountainous border with Afghanistan

    • -majority grown in Afghanistan due to ideal conditions

Current issue
Current Issue

  • Since raw opium commands a price as much as 10 times richer than wheat does this has grown widespread

  • poppy (ingredient in opium) requires less effort in cultivation than grain

A current issue1
A Current Issue

  • Opium production increased tenfold

  • In areas of Tajikistan bordering Afghanistan one kg. of raw opium costs less than .50

  • Price doubles in Dushanbe and redoubles in Russia

A current issue2
A current Issue

  • increasing number of residents of areas bordering on Afghanistan involved in smuggling

  • 35 % of Tajikistan's GDP comes from drug trafficking

A current issue3
A Current Issue

  • According to the EU : drug trafficking increased dramatically since 2001

    • The Taliban had restricted opium crops

  • Strong and powerful organized-crime groups operating in Tajikistan

  • According to UN calculations: Tajikistan 1st among the CIS countries, 4th in world for trafficking at borders

A current issue4
A Current Issue

  • Most drug trafficking routes follow the road and railway systems

  • Large portion of drugs flown out of Dushanbe by air

    • Pamir mountains also facing problem

      • extremely isolated from rest of country, especially in winter time

Effects of the people
Effects of the People

  • Drug addicts in state institutions increased more than 4 times in the last 7 yrs

  • 74 % reportedly use heroin (real figure probably 10-15 times higher)

  • HIV following Heroine traffic routes

    • Getting infected with HIV criminal offence because linked with drug use and culturally inappropriate behavior

Drug trafficking problem
Drug Trafficking Problem

  • Seizure of roughly 22 tons of drugs, worth $500 million

  • Tajikistan is traditionally the first stop for heroin and opium from Afghanistan to be smuggled to Western markets

Taking action
Taking Action

  • Tajikistan and Germany recently conducted joint operation

  • Russian border troops posted along the Tajik-Afghan border

  • Drugs burning after being seized at Afghan border-over 1,000 lbs of heroine

Taking action1
Taking Action

  • “The problem can not be fought on a regional basis” - Imomali Rakhmonov

  • Created a global coalition against drugs

  • Tajik efforts over the past 3 years extremely successful



  • A small country with BIG problems