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alias STRUCTURE UNDERSTANDING the LOAD CARRYING SYSTEM of BUILDINGS SYSTEM Method of approach to understanding Collection of interrelated elements Various aspects of elements and relationships Problems related to the whole system STRUCTURE Abstract notion describing

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Alias structure l.jpg
alias STRUCTURE

UNDERSTANDING the

LOAD CARRYING SYSTEM

of BUILDINGS


System l.jpg
SYSTEM

Method of approach to understanding

Collection of interrelated elements

Various aspects of elements and relationships

Problems related to the whole system


Structure l.jpg
STRUCTURE

  • Abstract notion describing

    interrelationship of elements

  • Many different representations

    (verbal, graphical, mathematical).

Multiple structures in a system.


My family system l.jpg
MY FAMILY SYSTEM

Father

Mother

Foster mother

Sister

in Law

Brother

in Law

Brother

Me

Wife

Sister

Son

in Law

Daughter

in Law

Son

Daughter

Niece

Nephew

Grandson

Granddaughter


Structure of marriages l.jpg
STRUCTURE of MARRIAGES

MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION


Parentage structure l.jpg
PARENTAGE STRUCTURE

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

Father

Mother

Foster mother

Sister

in Law

Brother

in Law

Brother

Me

Wife

Sister

Son

in Law

Daughter

in Law

Son

Daughter

Niece

Nephew

Grandson

Granddaughter


A simple building plan l.jpg
A SIMPLE BUILDING PLAN

Secretary

Room 1

Boss

Reception

Hall

Corridor

Room 3

Room 4

Room 2

Exterior


Circulation structure l.jpg
CIRCULATION STRUCTURE

Room 4

Room 1

Room 3

Hall

Corridor

Room 2

Boss

Reception

Exterior

Secretary


Why buildings l.jpg
WHY BUILDINGS?

  • Meso-environment

    (thermal, acoustic, light)

Security (predators, pests, enemies, etc.)


Problems in buildings l.jpg
PROBLEMS in BUILDINGS

Problems and factors

Nearly all elements involved

Problem specific structures


Human factors l.jpg
HUMAN FACTORS

  • Psychological

    (spatial perception, spatial cognition)

Physiological (thermal comfort)

Social (spatial layout)

Cultural (meanings, use patterns, etc.)


Environmental factors l.jpg
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

  • Climatic

    (thermal, radiation, wind, rain, snow, etc.)

  • Economic

    (materials, labor, finance)

  • Geological

    (gravitation, earthquakes, materials,

    foundations)

  • Topographical

    (slopes, vegetation)


Mechanical factors l.jpg
MECHANICAL FACTORS

Mechanics (forces and motions)

Loads (gravitation, wind, earthquakes)

Foundations


Load carrying system lcs l.jpg
LOAD CARRYING SYSTEM(LCS)

Elements + connectivity structure

STRUCTURE of building

Structural problems


A simple building lcs l.jpg
A SIMPLE BUILDING LCS

Column 4

Beam 3

Beam 4

Slab

Beam 2

Beam 1

Column 3

Column 1

Column 2

Wall 2

Wall 1


Building elements l.jpg
BUILDING ELEMENTS

Wall 2

Wall 1

C1

C2

C3

C4

B1

B2

Slab

B3

B4


Structure of connectivity l.jpg

Slab

B1

B2

B3

B4

Wall 1

Wall 2

C4

C1

C2

C3

Edge connection

End connection

STRUCTURE of CONNECTIVITY


Structural requirements of lcss l.jpg
STRUCTURALREQUIREMENTSof LCSs

  • Restraint (sufficient members and supports

    to provide for equilibrium)

Strength (sufficient material to prevent rupture)

Rigidity (sufficient resistance to deformation)

Ductility (sufficient capacity for energy absorption)


Compatibility requirements of lcss l.jpg
COMPATIBILITY REQUIREMENTSof LCSs

Spatial layout (e.g. hotels, bearing walls)

Materials (e.g. masonry and vaults)

Services (integration of services)

  • Construction (e.g. bearing walls, integral forms,

    tower cranes)


Structural behavior l.jpg

Load

Load

Internal force

STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR

Internal forces

Displacements/deformations

Energy storage

Language of description is mechanical.


Understanding behavior of lcss l.jpg
UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIORof LCSs

Modeling of LCS

Prediction of loads

Analysis of mechanical forms

Understanding in terms of basic modes


Direction of predominant load l.jpg
DIRECTION of PREDOMINANT LOAD

Vertical (gravitation)

Horizontal (wind)

Combination (earthquake)


Geometric form l.jpg
GEOMETRIC FORM

Orientability

Dimensionality

1D forms - rod, planar curve, spatial curve

2D forms - plane, surface, systems of 1D forms

3D forms - solid, systems of 1D and 2D forms


Mechanical form l.jpg

Load

Orientation

Geometric

Form

MECHANICAL FORM

Combination of geometric form and load

  • Mechanical form = Oriented and loaded

    geometric form


Mechanical forms beam and column l.jpg

Load

Orientation

Load

Orientation

MECHANICAL FORMS(BEAM and COLUMN)

Geometric Form = ROD

BEAM

COLUMN


Mechanical forms arch and curved beam l.jpg

Load

Load

Load

Orientation

Load

Orientation

ARCH

CURVED BEAM

MECHANICAL FORMS(ARCH and CURVED BEAM)

Geometric Form = PLANAR CURVE




Spatial curved beam l.jpg

Spatial Curved Beam


Mechanical forms slab and wall l.jpg

Load

Load

Load

Orientation

Load

Orientation

SLAB

WALL

MECHANICAL FORMS(SLAB and WALL)

Geometric Form = PLANE




Mechanical forms shell l.jpg
MECHANICAL FORMS(SHELL)

Load




Understanding specific building lcs s l.jpg
UNDERSTANDING SPECIFICBUILDING LCS’s

Resolve hierarchy of structural problems

  • Determine scale of problem

    (overall building, breakdown of main structure,

    detail elements)

Resolve structure of elements

Recognize the MF of elements



Skyscraper overall building scale l.jpg

Gravitation

Wind

or

Earthquake

GF = ROD

MF = COLUMN

MF = BEAM

SKYSCRAPER(overall building scale)


Skyscraper main structure scale l.jpg

Gravitation

Gravitation

Earthquake

MF = SLAB

MF = WALL

MF = WALL

SKYSCRAPER(main structure scale)

GF = PLANE

GF = PLANE



Skyscraper detail scale l.jpg

Axial

Load

Lateral

Load

Weight

MF = COLUMN

MF = BEAM

Weight

MF = SLAB

Axial

Load

SKYSCRAPER(detail scale)

GF = ROD

GF = PLANE


Behavior of the beam l.jpg

Compression

T e n s i o n

BENDING MOMENT

SHEAR

BEHAVIOR of the BEAM

INTERNAL FORCES


Behavior of the column l.jpg

Tension

Compression

COMPRESSIVE

AXIAL FORCE

TENSILE

AXIAL FORCE

BEHAVIOR of the COLUMN

INTERNAL FORCES


Behavior of the column buckling l.jpg

Load

BENDING MOMENT

BEHAVIOR of the COLUMN (BUCKLING)

INTERNAL FORCE


Design for bending l.jpg

I beam

RC beam

DESIGN for BENDING

Provide material away from the center.

Provide the right kind of material.


Design for shear l.jpg

Truss

I beam

Welding

Castella beam

DESIGN for SHEAR

Provide diagonals


Design for compression l.jpg

Provide the necessary material in axial form.

DESIGN for COMPRESSION

AGAINST BUCKLING

Provide this material away from the center.


Two basic problems l.jpg

1. Space enclosure.

Planes of equal

potential energy

2. Provision of horizontal levels.

TWO BASIC PROBLEMS


Conclusion l.jpg
CONCLUSION

Look at a building LCS hierarchically.

Identify the predominant loading.

Identify the geometric form.

Identify the mechanical form.

Estimate the behavior.


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