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Emerging Trends In Technical Education- Future Challenges St. Vincent Palloti College of Engineering and Technology Nagpur 24 th July 2005 Prof. M. U. Deshpande Kanwal Rekhi School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Electrification Automobile Airplane

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Emerging Trends In TechnicalEducation- Future Challenges

St. Vincent Palloti College of Engineering and Technology


24 th July 2005

Prof. M. U. Deshpande

Kanwal Rekhi School of Information Technology

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

Greatest achievements 20 th century l.jpg




Water Supply


Radio TV

Agriculture Mechanization



Air conditioner & Refrigeration





Household Appliances

Health Technology


Laser & Fibre Optics

Nuclear Technology

High performance materials

Greatest Achievements: 20th Century

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Global Higher Education

Trillion Dollar today

MIT alone has annual budget of $ 1+ Billion; Tutgers 1.5 Billion

Growing fast thanks to knowledge economy

Major US Institutions opening up campuses around the world (may even be in India after 2005)

Australia with laser sharp focus is reaping the benefits in India & China

Interesting numbers – 65,000 Indian students to USA, 65,000 to rest of the world (2002) with $ 30K per student is 3+ Billion dollars of “lost opportunity”

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Indian Higher Education

A million students in engineering alone

Except a handful of Institutions many do not have a “mind share” and naturally no “market share”

Public Private partnership is the viable model

Too much central control makes them not play the card well; not striving towards excellence; “output” control lacking but full of “input” control; many weak institutions are not allowed to “die”; we need to grow still; not a single world-scale Institution

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Opportunities for Indian Higher Education

Can be “guru” to the world; world’s education hub; teaching back office;

Software industry success “trio” (Q+Q+E) applies to higher education too

Need to act quickly

At least start with IT Education; extend to others (software industry started with core software; today extends to ITES, Design, Publishing, Medicine ….)

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Technical Education

  • Key Societal Enabler

  • Able and Competent Human Resource crucial National Asset

  • Prime Factor of Production in Modern Economy

  • Quality pre requisite for global competition/massive expansion/fast changing needs scenario

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Quality Assessment Initiatives

  • Relative Recent Phenomenon

  • Origin in Mass Manufacturing of Consumer goods

  • Minimum Variance (SPC)

  • Least defects

  • Customer perception/expectation


Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Can Quality be Quantified?

  • Excites strong emotions

  • Subjectivity – Objectivity

  • Measurement’s importance

  • Sensory perceptions


  • Issue is consistency and reliability amenability to mass application.

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Depth of course work


Alumni Achievements



R&D Papers/Patents

Staff Student Ratio

Pass Ratio



Faculty Quality etc.

Globally Used Quality Indices for Academic Institutions

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Good Features of Quality Systems

  • Assessment: Multidimensional several measurable aspects

  • Achievements: Of majority faculty students

  • Indices: Per capita not of aggregate groups or cumulative

  • Outcome Indicators: Student learning added competence


Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Dale’s Cone of Experience

People Generally Remember

People are able to: (Learning Outcomes)

10% of what they read




20% of what they hear



30% of what they see

  • Demonstrate

  • Apply

  • Practice

Watch Videos

50% of what they

hear and see


Watch a Demonstration

70% of what

they say and write

  • Analyze

  • Design

  • Create

  • Evaluate

Design Collaborative Lesson

Participate in Hands-on Activity

90% of what

They say as

They do a


Simulate, Model or Experience

Design/perform a Presentation Do “the real thing”

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Establishing New Learning EnvironmentsTraditional --- Incorporating --- New Environment New Strategies

Teacher-centered instruction  Learner – centered environments

Single sense stimulation  Multisensory stimulation

Single path progression  Multipath progression

Single Media  Multimedia

Isolated Work  Collaborative work

Information Delivery  Information exchange

Passive learning  Active/exploratory/inquiry based learning

Factual/literal thinking  Critical thinking, informed decision making

Reactive response  Proactive/planned action

Isolated, artificial context  authentic, real world context

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Teaching Learning Process

  • Synergy of:

    – Faculty

    - Students

    - Infrastructure

    - DEP / Institution

  • NBA Focus on Process:

    • Academic calendar

    • Syllabi Delivery

    • Evaluation Systems

    • Info access

    • Enablers of faculty/student initiatives

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Student Quality

  • Number of application/seat

  • Diverse background

  • Time to complete degree

  • Quality of practical training/Projects

  • Placement and Initial Salaries

  • No taking GATE / PG Courses

  • Alumni reputation/entrepreneurs

  • Foreign students

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Faculty Quality Indicators

  • Number of applications/position

  • Publications, awards, patents

  • Sponsored projects/consultancy

  • Retention/turnover

  • Teaching Quality Innovations

  • Public service

  • Industry Exposures

  • Career satisfaction levels

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Institutional Quality

  • Strategic Planning

  • Interaction with Industry/Govt.

  • Resource Mobilization for better facilities

  • R&D and Training programs held

  • Interdisciplinary Initiatives

  • Perceived reputation

  • Student acceptability in Global Market

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Technology Status

  • Support services for catering to large student groups

  • Faculty and student access to World knowledge and Best Practices

  • Service to society through Faculty expertise, Annual reports

  • Active well maintained public image through Website and Links

  • Quality practices in house ISO/Six Sigma

Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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Teaching Process Fundamental:

  • Classroom dynamics

  • Processes and services to promote

    • Student Comprehension

    • Recall

    • Critical Thinking

  • Imaging Import /systems

    - Documentation

    - Graphics

    - Graphing

    - Multimedia

  • ICT Technologies

    • Better Education

    • Cost Effective

    • Value adding for average student

  • Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Technology in Teaching & Learning

    Integration widely desired but difficult without pervasive preparation.

    Ownership by faculty/students/managements.

    Only few enthusiastic individuals will not ensure sustainability.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    3 Keys to Technology Planning & Management

    • Encourage and train faculty – critical mass

    • Support student productivity – learning efficiency

    • Technology integrated curriculum

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Directions of Organized Education

    Engineering courses to move towards

    • Course-credit / modular structure

    • Elective in senior years

    • Broad base to courses rather than narrow specialization

    • Emphasis on hands-on practical work

    • Developing personality & enterprise

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Student Awareness Rucksack

    • Team working requirements

    • Communication & interpersonal skills

    • Standards unified/International EURO/ISO/SI/TQM

    • Personal Management

      • Change

      • Flexibility & Adaptability

      • Ability to work any time/place/site

      • Life long learning

      • Plan develop & execute career trajectory

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Holistic Engineering Practice

    • Systems thinking

      • Inductive, integrative life cycle management

    • Critical thinking (extension of knowledge)

    • Learning to do good

      • Sustainable/appropriate/safe designs & process

    • Innovation coupled to world market place

      • Political/environment/human issues with technical

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Paradigms in Laboratory Work in Engineering Education

    • Basic Nature and Purpose

      • What should change

      • What should remain

      • Benchmarks

    • Human and Financial Resources

      • For instruction and assessment

      • For certification testing and R&D

      • Management Structures

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Quality and Cost Concerns

    • Huge expansion of Technical Education

    • Lab provisions grossly inadequate

    • Misleading assessment in Practical marks

    • Expensive equipments and need for duplication

    • Cost centers/no resource generation

    • Staff – low quality high cost

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Nature and Purpose of Lab Work

    • Essential Scaffolding to evolving learning structure

    • Reinforcement of Theory “concepts”

    • Awareness of Modeling the Abstract

    • To affirm on cause-effect relationship

    • Skill in measurements of physical variables

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Measurements in Science & Technology

    Lord Kelvin: When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something, ……

    McNamara Fallacy: We tend to give too much importance to what is measurable rather than trying to measure the important ……

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Laboratory Provision in Engineering Curriculum

    International Accreditation Criteria, ABET

    Graduate to demonstrate ability

    • To design and construct experiment

    • Use tools of modern Engineering for Engineering practice

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Categories of Lab Work

    • Curriculum support (UG)

    • Analytical Instrumentation

      • For exploration in state of Art Technologies

    • Research Lab for work in leading edge technologies

    • Testing, calibration, maintenance

      To ensure reliability and sustainability

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Difficulties in Implementation

    Large number of students and batches

    Batch size 15-20

    Two supervisors

    Ensuring Learning / avoidance of harm

    Insistence of daytime learning

    Time table management difficult

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Opportunities in Third Party Testing

    • Testing of components, products & systems

    • Conformance to standards / calibration

    • Laboratory accreditation NABL

    • Professional management qualified staff

    • Quality assurance systems in Lab

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Use of Technology in Lab Work

    • Audio video clips of working experiments commentary by Faculty

    • Software simulation

      • But context of Real World needs to be brought out

    • Safety and harm avoidance aspects

    • Database of standards / best practices

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Accreditation Abroad (contd.)

    • ECPD  ABET 1980 for Engineering programs. Computer Science Accreditation Board – 1984

    • CSAB merged in ABET 2001

    • Engineering council in UK, IEE / ICE, ImechE.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Accreditation Abroad

    Education Accreditation more than a century old

    • Oldest accreditation of Engineering program U.S. 1932 ECPD

    • Accredited qualification as Prerequisite of Professional License to practice. Hence controlled by professional societies.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Washington Accord

    Accreditation Agencies of Developed World agreement for recognition of accredited program in respective countries for License to Professional Practice

    Original Six

    USA, Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, Newzeland

    Now added: RSA, Hongkong

    Provisional Signatory Status

    Japan, Singapore, Germany, Malaysia

    India applicant - Team visiting January 2005

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Washington Accord (Contd.)

    • Only UG Degree programs covered

    • Ready acceptance of respective country’s

      academic requirements for entry to practice of profession of Engineering.

      Covers Quality Assurance of online and web based instruction and programs Imported/exported .

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    GATE – Global Alliance for Transnational Education - 1996

    Private Multinational Industry Initiative looking for qualified manpower from developing countries.

    Originally founded by Jones International, joined later by Coca cola, Ericsson etc.

    Center for Quality Assurance in International Education Washington DC

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students

    • Ability to apply knowledge of Maths, Science and Engineering

    • Ability to design and conduct expert and analyze and interpret data

    • Ability to design a system component or process to meet desired needs

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students (contd.)

    Additionals from 2005 onwards

    • Broad general education to understand impact of Engineering solutions on society and globe

    • Life long learning ability

    • Knowledge of contemporary issues

    • Ability to use technics, skills and modern engineering tools for engineering practice.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students (contd.)

    Additionals from 2005 onwards

    • Ability to function on multi disc team

    • Ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems

    • Understanding a professional and ethical responsibilities

    • Ability to communicate effectively

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students (contd.)

    Program to possess assessment process with documented results.

    Also evidence that these results are used to further develop and improve the program.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Boundaryless Careers

    Globalization and Economic restructuring

    Traditional concepts of career affected

    How to survive without job for life

    No roadmap to guide firm’s fortune and employee status or place in society

    No stable organizational & occupational structures

    Personal initiative and mutual cooperation

    Agency and communion manage own arrangements of working with others.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Silicon Valley

    Boundarylessness – Key advantage

    Individualistic open labour market

    Dynamic Industry demanding

    Constant innovation

    Needs knowledge sharing. Delicate balance sharing between cooperation and competition

    Hewlet of HP – If you want to succeed here you must be willing – to change jobs often

    • talk to your competitors

    • Take risk, even if it leads to failure

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Boundaryless Careers

    Employees identify with their profession and not their companies.

    Job changing norms – Average 2-3 years

    35% turn over

    A colleague – Customer

    Boss – Subordinate

    Respect and authority through competence

    Technical excellence and market share highest regards – successful entrepreneurs

    Key to success – Continuous learning through relationships

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Silicon Valley

    Collective actions

    • Mutual interest

    • Intellectual curiosity

    • Problem solving leading to


    • New Markets

    • New Technologies

    • Products/applications

      People rub shoulders/share ideas

      Social interaction replaces hierarchy central planning

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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    Thank you.

    Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

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