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Psychology of Coaching Motivating Your Athletes. Rick Albrecht, Ph.D. Michigan High School Athletic Association. These Slides Are Available On The Web:. http://faculty.gvsu.edu/albrechr/recentpresentations.html. Perhaps the Most Important Place To Start Is.

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Psychology of coaching motivating your athletes

Psychology of CoachingMotivating Your Athletes

Rick Albrecht, Ph.D.

Michigan High School Athletic Association


These slides are available on the web

These Slides AreAvailable On The Web:

http://faculty.gvsu.edu/albrechr/recentpresentations.html


Perhaps the most important place to start is

Perhaps the Most Important Place To Start Is...

What Would You Like to Learn About The Psychology of Coaching?


Changing behavior a positive approach to coaching

Changing Behavior:A Positive Approach to Coaching

The primary function of a coach is to somehow alter existing behavior --

We, as coaches, must make a conscious decision as to whether we will use a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE approach when we attempt to make these changes


Using a negative approach to change behavior

Using a Negative Approachto Change Behavior

One Single “Advantage”…

It often works -- can eliminate undesirable behavior. But only in the short run and only when we are present and only when we’re willing to punish


Using a negative approach to change behavior1

Using a Negative Approachto Change Behavior

Disadvantages(page 1)

Can be very unpleasant -- reduce enjoyment and MOTIVATION (may increase likelihood of athletes quitting the team)

Increases ANXIETY (and error rate)

Produces “fear of failure”


Using a negative approach to change behavior2

Using a Negative Approachto Change Behavior

Disadvantages(page 2)

Reduces “risk-taking”

Can actually reinforce some undesirable behaviors and thus, actually increase your discipline problems

Wastes valuable practice time


Using a negative approach to change behavior3

Using a Negative Approachto Change Behavior

Disadvantages(page 3)

We often use physical activity as punishment

Running Laps

Running Sprints

Push-ups

Sit-ups


Why would you ever use physical activity as punishment

Why Would You Ever UsePhysical Activity As Punishment?

You (like it or not) are a Physical Educator

One of the “benefits” of sport is that it promotes lifelong physical activity (health benefits)

Why would you ever use what you want to promote as punishment?


Negative and positive approaches to changing behavior

Negative and Positive Approachesto Changing Behavior

Major Assumption of Negative Approach to Coaching… We can somehow “scare” a bad performance right out of the athlete

Later we’ll be talking about anxiety, stress and motivation -- keep in mind that a negative approach will only increase the anxiety levels -- and probably hurt performance



A positive approach using the feedback sandwich

The Feedback Sandwich Make Those Necessary Changes?

(or “Big Mac” Attack)

A Positive Approach: Using the“Feedback Sandwich”

Reinforcement

Instruction

Encouragement


Three steps in the feedback sandwich

Three Steps in The “Feedback Sandwich” Make Those Necessary Changes?

Step 1:

Start by reinforcing (praising) your athlete for ANYTHING he/she has done correctly -- regardless of how small


Step 1 reinforce something they ve done right

Step 1 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Reinforce Something They’ve Done Right

Why?

Let’s break up into small groups and list all benefits you can think of for starting your “error correction” process by reinforcing something your learners have done correctly.


Step 1 reinforce something they ve done right1

Step 1 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Reinforce Something They’ve Done Right

It forces you to recognize that most of the performance was actually done correctly

It raises their self-esteem and confidence

It reinforces correct elements of the performance

It’s the best way to get their attention


Step 2 provide future oriented instruction

Step 2 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Provide Future-Oriented Instruction

Follow the positive reinforcement (now that you have their attention) with FUTURE-ORIENTED instruction

Don’t dwell on the mistakes -- there is nothing the athlete can do to correct a mistake made in the past -- they can only change what they do in the future -- tell them what to do “next time”


Future oriented instruction

Future Make Those Necessary Changes?-Oriented Instruction

Don’t tell them what they already know -- tell them something they don’t know

Don’t simply tell them that they’ve made a mistake -- let them know why they made the mistake


Step 3 end with general praise and encouragement

Step 3 Make Those Necessary Changes?: End with General Praise and Encouragement

Why?

Encourages them to try again

Lets them know you have confidence in their ability to perform the skill correctly (Do You Really?)


Activity 1 1 what motivates you and your athletes

Activity 1.1 Make Those Necessary Changes?What Motivates You and Your Athletes?

How do you know when your athletes are motivated?

How do you know when YOU are motivated?


Motivating your athletes and yourself

Motivating Your Athletes Make Those Necessary Changes?(and Yourself)

Motivate Yourself First

How Do You Expect to Motivate Others If You Can’t Motivate Yourself First?

Motivation is Contagious

You Have to Control The Things YOUHave Control Over -- Nothing Else


T G I F Make Those Necessary Changes?

M


Activity 1 2 a quick check of your motivation

Activity 1.2 Make Those Necessary Changes?A Quick Check of YOUR Motivation...

Why Did You Play Sports?

Why Do You Coach?


Always remember our players come to us already highly motivated
Always Remember…Our Players Come To Us Make Those Necessary Changes?Already Highly Motivated

Therefore…

It’s Our Job To Maintain Our Players’ Natural Motivation To Play Our Sport

The $1,000,000 Question Is …

What Can We, As Coaches, Do To Help Our Players Maintain Their Natural Motivation For Sport?


Always remember our players come to us already highly motivated1
Always Remember…Our Players Come To Us Make Those Necessary Changes?Already Highly Motivated

The $1,000,000 Answer Is …

We Need To Learn Some Of The Basic Principles Of Motivation


Five things you can do to motivate your athletes

Five Things You Can Do Make Those Necessary Changes?To Motivate Your Athletes

#1 You Can...

Identify why athletes participate and why they drop out

#2 You Can...

Identify what is motivating each of your athletes: PERFORMANCE or OUTCOME


Five guidelines to motivate our athletes

Five “Guidelines” Make Those Necessary Changes?To Motivate Our Athletes

#3 You Can...

Help your athletes set “S.M.A.R.T.” goals to improve their skills and learn new skills

#4 You Can…

Make their athletic experience enjoyable and exciting

#5 You Can...

Reduce competitive stress


Guideline 1 identify why athletes participate and why they drop out

Guideline #1 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Identify why athletes participateand why they drop out

Why?

Let’s get into our small groups once again and come up with a list of reasons young athletes say they participate in youth sports.


What does the research say

What Does The Research Say? Make Those Necessary Changes?

Children Participate in Youth Sports…

1. To Have Fun

2. To Improve Skills

3. To Stay in Shape

4. To Do Something They’re “Good At”

5. For the Excitement of Competition


What does the research say1

What Does The Research Say? Make Those Necessary Changes?

Children Participate in Youth Sports…

6. To Get Exercise

7. To Play as Part of a Team

8. For the Challenge of Competition

9. To Learn New Skills

10. To Win


What does the research say2

What Does The Research Say? Make Those Necessary Changes?

Would you rather play on a regular basis for a poor team or “sit the bench” for a championship team?

Between 78-90% would rather play on a poor team than sit on the bench for the champs!


Guideline 1 identify why athletes participate and why they drop out1

Guideline #1 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Identify why athletes participateand why they drop out

Why?

Let’s get into our small groups once again and come up with a list of reasons young athletes say they drop out of youth sports.


What does the research say3

What Does The Research Say? Make Those Necessary Changes?

Children Drop Out Because of...

Other interests

Work

Lack of interest

Did not play enough

Skills were not improving

Did not like the coach


Guideline 2 help your athletes set s m a r t goals to improve their skills and learn new skills

Guideline #2 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Help your athletes set “S.M.A.R.T.” goals to improve their skills and learn new skills

Help Everyone on Your Team Set Individual Goals

As Goals Are Attained, They Help Motivate! Athletes See Themselves Improving


Activity 2 1 as a coach what are your goals

Activity 2.1 Make Those Necessary Changes?As a Coach, What Are Your Goals?

What are your “in-season” goals?

What are your “off-season” goals?


There are two types of goals

There Are Two Types of Goals Make Those Necessary Changes?

Performance Goals

Athletes judge success or failure based on their performance. Not whether they won or lost

Outcome Goals

Athletes judge success or failure based on the outcome regardless how how they played


Help your athletes set s m a r t goals

Help Your Athletes Set Make Those Necessary Changes?“S.M.A.R.T.” Goals

S - Specific

M - Measurable

A- Attainable

R- Relevant

T- Time-Oriented


S m a r t goals are specific

“S.M.A.R.T.” Goals Are… Make Those Necessary Changes?Specific

Example:

Mark, who swims for his high school team, has a goal of “doing well at the state meet in the backstroke”

How can Mark’s goal be improved?


S m a r t goals are measurable

“S.M.A.R.T.” Goals Are… Make Those Necessary Changes?Measurable

Example:

Myles is a forward on his school’s soccer team and has set his goal this year to “become the best forward in the conference.”

How can Myles’ goal be improved?


S m a r t goals are attainable

“S.M.A.R.T.” Goals Are… Make Those Necessary Changes?Attainable

Example:

Courtney has a goal to win state on the uneven bars. The problem is she’s not even in the rotation for this event.

How can Courtney’s goal be improved?


S m a r t goals are relevant

“S.M.A.R.T.” Goals Are… Make Those Necessary Changes?Relevant

Example:

Andrew, a kick return specialist on his school’s football team has set a goal to run five miles a day to increase his cardio-vascular endurance.

How can Andrew’s goal be improved?


S m a r t goals are time oriented

“S.M.A.R.T.” Goals Are… Make Those Necessary Changes?Time-Oriented

Example:

Cory is a freshman pitcher on his school’s baseball team. He has a a goal to improve the speed of his fastball to 90 m.p.h.

How can Cory’s goal be improved?


Guideline 3 make the whole experience enjoyable and exciting

Guideline #3 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Make the whole experienceenjoyable and exciting

Keep practices and games fun

Encourage athletes to be with, and make friends

Let all athletes participate

Avoid boredom by varying routines


Guideline 3 make the whole experience enjoyable and exciting1

Guideline #3 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Make the whole experienceenjoyable and exciting

Use simple, active drills (no standing around) and short practices

Use change of pace activities

Allow athletes to try out leadership roles, new positions, and make decisions -- after all, it’s their game isn’t it?


Guideline 4 reduce competitive stress

Guideline #4 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Reduce Competitive Stress

Competitive Stress Occurs:

When an athlete believes that a competitive situation, especially one perceived as highly important, threatens his/her self-esteem

When an athlete believes that his/her capabilities are not good enough to meet the competitive demand


Guideline 4 reduce competitive stress1

Guideline #4 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Reduce Competitive Stress

Remember, YOU might be part of the “competitive demand”


Guideline 5 teach an appropriate view of success

Guideline #5 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Teach An AppropriateView of Success

Encourage athletes to believe that real success means (notice the link to goal-setting):

Improving oneself (which ultimately enables winning)

Achieving realistic goals for improvement (not just the outcomes of competitions)


Guideline 5 teach an appropriate view of success1

Guideline #5 Make Those Necessary Changes?: Teach An AppropriateView of Success

Giving one’s best effort to improve at all times (the athlete can control effort but not outcome)

A Couple Examples From the “Winningest” Coaches Around...


De la salle high school concord california

De La Salle High School Make Those Necessary Changes?(Concord, California)

151 Consecutive Wins

An Overall Record of 287-14-1

More Perfect Seasons (17) than losses (14)

ESPN’s #1 High School Team in the Country 5 of the Last 6 Years


How do you win 151 football games in a row

How Do You Win 151 Make Those Necessary Changes?Football Games in a Row?

By NOT Setting a Goal to Win!

“Everyone asks me how I’ve won 151 straight games… my answer is always the same… BY NOT CONCENTRATING ON WINNING. If you work hard enough, the wins will come.

-- Bob Ladouceur, Head Coach


John wooden coach espn s coach of the century

John Wooden, Coach Make Those Necessary Changes? ESPN’s “Coach of the Century”

10 NCAA Championships in 12 years

6 Times Voted “College Coach of the Year”

88 Consecutive Victories

38 Consecutive NCAA Tournament Wins

4 Undefeated Seasons


How do you become the most successful basketball coach of all time

How Do You Become Make Those Necessary Changes?the Most SuccessfulBasketball Coach of All Time?

By NOT Setting a Goal to Win!

“I never mentioned winning or victory to my players. I never referred to beating an opponent. Instead I constantly urged them to strive for the self-satisfaction that comes with knowing you did your best.”

-- John Wooden, Head Coach


How do you become the most successful basketball coach of all time1

How Do You Become Make Those Necessary Changes?the Most SuccessfulBasketball Coach of All Time?

By NOT Setting a Goal to Win!

“Did I win? Did I lose?” Those are the wrong questions. The correct question is: “Did I make my best effort?” That’s what matters. The rest of it just gets in the way”

-- John Wooden, Head Coach


Some final thoughts from coach wooden

Some Final Thoughts Make Those Necessary Changes?From Coach Wooden...

Motivation:

“Enthusiasm brushes off on those with whom you come into contact, those you work with and for. You must have enthusiasm, especially if you’re a leader or if you wish to be a leader”


Some final thoughts from coach wooden1

Some Final Thoughts Make Those Necessary Changes?From Coach Wooden...

Goals:

“I never mentioned victory or winning to my players. I never referred to ‘beating’ an opponent. Instead I constantly urged them to strive to do the best of which they were capable. That was the measurement I used -- not the final score”


Some final thoughts from coach wooden2

Some Final Thoughts Make Those Necessary Changes?From Coach Wooden...

Arousal:

“I wasn’t much for giving speeches to stir up emotions before a game… Mistakes occur when your thinking is tainted by excessive emotion… Unless you’re attempting to run through a brick wall, excessive emotion is counterproductive.”


Thank you for the opportunity to talk with you this evening

Thank You for The Opportunity To Talk With You This Evening Make Those Necessary Changes?

I wish you good luck and if you need to contact me…

Rick Albrecht

Grand Valley State University

[email protected]


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