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Sleep Variations in Consciousness Consciousness – Awareness of internal and external stimuli “personal awareness” Example Variation in levels of awareness Consciousness is not all or none We still have some level of awareness during sleep and even while under anesthesia during surgery

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Variations in Consciousness

  • Consciousness – Awareness of internal and external stimuli

    • “personal awareness”

    • Example


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Variation in levels of awareness

  • Consciousness is not all or none

  • We still have some level of awareness during sleep and even while under anesthesia during surgery

  • Examples


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Studying states of consciousness

  • Electroencephalograph (EEG) –a device that monitors electrical activity of the brain over time

    • Records electrodes attached to surface of scalp

  • This shows the rhythm of activity of brain (brain waves)


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Biological Rhythms and Sleep

  • Circadian Rhythm – 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and other species

    • Influential in sleep regulation

  • These rhythms prime us to fall asleep easily at a certain point in day

    • “ideal” time


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Ignoring Rhythms (Ideal Sleep)

  • What happens when we ignore our biological clocks and sleep at an unusual time?

    • Quality suffers

    • Tired, sluggish, irritable for days, lower cognitive performance

  • Equates with “jet lag”

  • This is especially problematic for workers constantly switching and working odd shifts.

    • What some studies show


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Realigning Circadian Rhythms

  • Researchers have studied methods to get over this feeling of “jet lag”

  • Options

    • Certain type of drug (melanonin)

    • Carefully timed exposure to bright light

    • Carefully plan rotation schedules at work

  • Problem with options


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The Sleep and Waking Cycle

  • Former thoughts about sleep…

  • Now realize that much physical and mental activity happens during sleep

  • How did we form this understanding?

    • Sleep Laboratories

      • Volunteer patients spend night

      • What happens in these labs?

      • Video clip


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Sleep Stages

  • Sleep onset is gradual

  • Once we fall asleep, humans progress through different stages

  • Stages 1-4- Commonly referred to as non-REM sleep

    • Respiration, heart rate, and body temperature decrease with each stage

    • Brain waves increase as we progress


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REM Sleep

  • This is the fifth and final sleep stage

  • REM= Rapid eye movements

    • How are these measured?

    • How were they discovered?

  • REM is the deepest form of sleep

    • Rapid eye movements

    • High frequency brain waves

    • Dreaming

  • Sleep cycle (Stages 1-5) repeat during night


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Cultural Variations in sleep

  • Cultures mostly similar in terms of sleep experience and activity

    • Differ on other matters

  • Co-sleeping- children and parents sleeping together

    • More accepted in other cultures

      • Examples

  • Napping

    • Some societies close shops and activities during day to permit naps for an hour or two

      • examples


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Sleep Deprivation

  • Research has focused on sleep restriction – partial sleep deprivation

  • Seems that much of the U.S. are chronic sufferers

    • Effects our attention, reaction time, decision making

  • Night time workers fall asleep on job

  • Numerous accidents are result of sleep deprivation

    • Examples


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Selective Deprivation

  • Selective Deprivation

    • Many lab studies awake participants whenever they begin to go into REM

    • Selectively deprived of REM

  • As nights go by, need to awaken more and more

    • REM begins to happen more spontaneously in these patients now

  • Following deprivation:

  • Rebound Effect- patients spend extra time in REM sleep for one to three nights


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Sleep Problems

  • Insomnia- chronic problems getting adequate sleep

    • 15-17% of adults suffer from severe insomnia

  • Narcolepsy- marked by sudden, irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods.

    • Awake directly to REM sleep

    • Very rare

  • Sleep Apnea- frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens person and disrupts sleep

    • Person literally stops breathing for 10 seconds

    • Clips (if time)


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