Sex vs. Gender
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Sex vs. Gender. GENDER-RELATED BEHAVIOR Concepts Sex vs. Gender Third Genders Biological vs. Social Male BerdacheHijras Biological vs. Social Female fa’afafinesGuevodoche EunuchsCastrati Pseudo-hermaphroditismInstitutionalized Homosexuality

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Sex vs. Gender

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Sex vs gender

Sex vs. Gender


Sex vs gender

GENDER-RELATED BEHAVIOR

Concepts

Sex vs. GenderThird Genders

Biological vs. Social MaleBerdacheHijras

Biological vs. Social Femalefa’afafinesGuevodoche

EunuchsCastrati

Pseudo-hermaphroditismInstitutionalized Homosexuality

Patriarchal SocietyMatriarchal Society

UniformitarianismOccam's Razor

Correlation does not prove causality. Typical does not mean "natural." A constant cannot explain a variable.Ethnobiology

Dichotomous vs. Continuous Sexual Paradigm

Aristotelian vs. Galilean

essentialist vs. conditional

Infrastructure  Structure  Superstructure


Sex vs gender

Calpernia Addams is a pre-operative transsexual


Sex vs gender

Hermaphrodites

a.k.a.

Intersexuals


Sex vs gender

Jamie Lee Curtis

* * * * *

Male or Female?


Sex vs gender

Dr. Anne Fausto-Sterling has proposed that we replace our two-sex system with a five-sex system:

  • Males

  • Females,

  • Herms ("true" hermaphrodites)

  • Merms (male "pseudohermaphrodites")

  • Ferms (female "pseudohermaphrodites")


Sex vs gender

From a Dichotomous to a Continuous

Model of Sexuality

Dichotomous

MaleFemale

Continuous

MaleFemale


Sex vs gender

Forms of Sexuality

In Nature


Sex vs gender

  • Typological Approach:

    • The categories are real.

    • Race, species, sex, cultures, etc.

    • Behavior is explained in terms of the categories. (Aristotelian)

  • Population Approach:

    • Individuals are real.

    • Categories are only abstractions.

    • Behavior is explained in terms of conditional factors. (Galileian)


Sex vs gender

Classification of the Cassowary among the Karem of New Guinea

SOURCE: “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man, Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)


Sex vs gender

Species Hybridization

Mallard – Pintail Hybridization


Sex vs gender

Species Hybridization

Coyote

Red Wolf

Gray Wolf


Sex vs gender

Circular Overlap


Sex vs gender

Asymmetrical

Sterility

Male

Female

YES

NO

Female

Male


Sex vs gender

Homosexuality

  • 64% of human societies surveyed either condone of encourage same-sex relationships.

    • Platonic love in ancient Greece

      • Presentation of the body (with women)

      • Presentation of the mind (with men)

      • Greek soldiers brought young boys on military campaigns

    • Azande military homosexuality

      • Warriors have boy-wives

      • Boy wives become warriors with their own boy-wives

    • The Sambia of Highland New Guinea

      • Boys Fallate older men

      • Build up store of semen

      • Prohibition against masturbation


Sex vs gender

Third Genders

HijrasTwo SpiritsFa’afafines

(Berdache)

GuevodocheCastratiEunuchs

Sworn Albanian VirginsSunflowers


Sex vs gender

Gender-Related

Behavior


Sex vs gender

GENDER-RELATED BEHAVIOR

Concepts

Sex vs. GenderThird Genders

Biological vs. Social MaleBerdacheHijras

Biological vs. Social Femalefa’afafinesGuevodoche

EunuchsCastrati

Pseudo-hermaphroditismInstitutionalized Homosexuality

Patriarchal SocietyMatriarchal Society

UniformitarianismOccam's Razor

Correlation does not prove causality. Typical does not mean "natural." A constant cannot explain a variable.Ethnobiology

Dichotomous vs. Continuous Sexual Paradigm

Aristotelian vs. Galilean

essentialist vs. conditional

Infrastructure  Structure  Superstructure


Sex vs gender

The issue is not whether differences exist between men and women --which of course they do-- but rather whether those differences are relevant for explaining differences in behavior from one society to the next.


Sex vs gender

“There are more methodological problems in regards to the study of cognitive sex differences and sex differences in general than there are actual sex differences.”

--Dr. Caroline Jaklin


Sex vs gender

The Role of Prediction in Science.

(Given a, . . . Then b.)

  • The goal of scientific research is to develop theories and models that lead to better and better predictions of behavior.

  • Predictability is, thus, fundamental to doing science.

  • Yet, predictability is severely lacking in sex-difference research.

  • “We gain little in prediction by knowing the sex of a child.” (Jacklin)

  • Differences generally range from 1- 5% when, in fact, they differ (Caplan & Caplan)

  • Which means that between 95 - 99% of sex-related behavior is indistinguishable


Sex vs gender

Why Does Sex-Difference Research Persist?

  • Given all of the methodological problems associated with such studies and the consistently small (and frequently non-existent) differences found, it is reasonable to ask why such research persists?

  • Would we continue to conduct such inconclusive research in physics, chemistry, biology or medicine?

  • Would we continue to fund research that after 30 years could not point to conclusive results?

  • Whose interests might be served by such research?


Sex vs gender

Aristotelian approaches to the study of Sex and Gender


Sex vs gender

Commonly used Aristotelian Concepts:

Maternal Instinct Male Aggressiveness Machismo

Patriarchal Society Human NatureMatriarchal Society


Sex vs gender

Aristotelian concepts of Gender cannot explain . . .

1. Why Net-hunter Pygmy women enjoy a higher social status than archer women.

2. Why Yanomamo women have much lower social status than Dobe !Kung women, or why they also have a lower social status than women in most other Amazonian societies.

3. Why Inuit (Eskimo) women have among the lowest social status of all women in hunter-gatherer societies.

or . . .


Sex vs gender

. . . why the role of women and their status in both the domestic and political economy changed dramatically among the Plains Indians as they moved onto the Great Plains and became increasingly dependent on mounted bison hunting.

1. Among the Sioux, the Cheyenne and other eastern tribes,

the family structure changed from being matrilocal and

matrilineal extended kin groups to individualized

patrilocal and polygynous ones.

2. Among the western Plains Indians, such as the Blackfoot,

which had previously been organized along extended

patrilocal and patrilineal lines evolved male-focused

independent polygynous households.

or . . .


Sex vs gender

. . . why most of those executed for witchcraft in Europe and North America during the Great Witch Craze were women, whereas most of the Pueblo Indians in the Southwest that were executed as witches by the early Spanish Conquistadors were men.

. . . or why most witches among the Pueblo, Apache and Navajo in the American Southwest are believed to be men.

. . . or why among the Yoruba of Nigeria, not only do most men suspect their wives of witchcraft, but most women suspect their co-wives and their mothers-in-law of witchcraft.or . . .


Sex vs gender

. . . Or why . . .

1. 47% of the 95 societies she surveyed were "rape-free",

while 17% proved to be "unambiguouslyrape-prone.”

2. The Ashanti of West Africa and the Mbuti Pygmies of

the Ituri Forest are rape-free societies, whereas 47.2

rapes per 100,000 persons were recorded for the Gusii

of Kenya.

3. The highest rape rate among Industrial societies occurs

in the U.S. at 13.5 rapes per 100,000 inhabitants. In

contrast, the incidence of rape in Japan, a more

“patriarchal” society than the U.S., is far below that of

the U.S.

_________________________________________

SOUCE: B. L. Benderly, “Rape Free or Rape Prone” Science 82 (1982)


Sex vs gender

. . . why female income relative to male income in the U.S. increased from 59¢ to 60¢ per dollar between 1960 and 1980, whereas it increased from 60¢ to 73¢ per dollar between 1980 and 1990 (during the politically conservative Reagan and Bush administrations), and only increased from 73¢ to 76¢ per dollar between 1992 and 2000, when Bill Clinton and Al Gore were in office.

. . . or why average female income increased10% from 1979 to 1990, while averagemale income decreased by 8%.

. . . or why White female employment increased 72% between 1974 and 1977 at the same time that Black male employment declined by 11%.


Sex vs gender

. . . or why there was a dramatic increase during the 1970s and 1980s in the number of individuals in the U.S. claiming:

1. to have recovered memories of childhood sexual

abuse by family members

2. to have recovered memories of sexual abuse

by members of satanic cults

3. to believe that they possessed multiple personalities.

. . . or why:

1. this was a distinctly American phenomenon

2. the overwhelming majority (over 90%) of these

individuals were white middle class females.


Sex vs gender

. . . why M. Konner reports that 57 out of 94 studies of aggression showed "statistically significant sex differences" in aggressive behavior.

1. in 52 of the 57 studies that showed gender differences

in aggressive behavior,boys were more aggressive

than girls.

2. In 5 of the studies, girls were more aggressive than

boys.

3. In 37 studiesthere wereno gender difference in

aggression.


Sex vs gender

Gender Differences in Wages

Discrimination

Or

Adaptation?


Sex vs gender

RE: the Census Bureau statistic that women earn 76% of what men earn.

“Among women and men aged 27 to 33, who have never had a child, the earnings of women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are close to 98 percent of men’s.”

--June O’Neill, Director

Congressional Budget Office

“It’s the vast majority of us who become mothers who are responsible for dragging the average down.”

--Danielle Crittenden

New York Times (1995)


Sex vs gender

Effect of the Differential Opportunity Costs

of Men’s vs. Women’s labor

  • 1. ”Although the role of children is typically ignored in studies of male labor supply and wage discrimination, fatherhood has quantitatively and statistically significant effects on both outcomes.”

  • “Because we observe increases in both hourly wages and annual hours of work for fathers, increased specialization of husbands and wives in response to parenthood is the dominant pattern for both early (pre-1950) and later (post-1950) cohorts.”

  • --Lundberg & Rose (2002)


Sex vs gender

“Tests indicate that housework has approximately the same impact on wages for men and women who are not currently married, but that the negative relation is somewhat stronger for married women as compared with married men. Evidence suggests that this differential could be due to gender differences in the type of housework performed by married persons.”

--Hersch and Stratton (2002)


Sex vs gender

Gender Stereotypes


Sex vs gender

  • Women and Violence

  • Women commit the majority of child homicides in the U.S.

  • Women commit the majority of physical child abuse in the U.S.

  • Women commit about 25% of the child sexual abuse in the U.S.

  • Women are primarily responsible for infanticide.

  • 30% of the women who killed men in one Chicago study had previous arrest records for assault, battery, and weapons charges.


Sex vs gender

Domestic Violence

in

Gay and Lesbian Relationships


Sex vs gender

Domestic Violence in Gay and Lesbian Relationships

Kelly & Warshafsky (1986): 46% of gay and lesbians reported using

physical aggression for conflict resolution with their partners.

Brand & Kidd (1986): 25% of lesbians surveyed reported that they had

been physically abused by their lesbian partners.

Coleman (1990): Of 90 lesbian couples surveyed, 46% experienced

“repeated acts of violence in their relationships.”

Reyes (1991): 26% of lesbians reported physical, sexual and

emotional abuse in their current same-sex

relationship.

Renzetti (1996): 22-46% of all lesbians have been in a physically

violent, same-sex relationship.


Sex vs gender

Are these women “victims” of “patriarchy”, or active participants in socially accepted gender roles?

Are they being “exploited”, or are they using the resources they have to their own advantage?

“Arm Candy”


Sex vs gender

Comparing the State of Children

19601990

5%Children born to unwed mothers 28%

7% Children under 3 living with one parent 27%

1%Children under 18 experiencing the 50%

divorce of their parents

17%Mothers returning to work within 53%

one year of a child’s birth

10% Children under 18 living in a 25%

one-parent family

19%Married women with children under 60%

6 years old in the labor force

______________________________________________

SOURCE: New York Times


Sex vs gender

Females are capable of taking up arms . . .

One-third of Columbian rebel soldiers are female.

. . . and killing people


Sex vs gender

Violent Women

Jenny Metcalf

Pearl Hart

Circle Piru Blood


Sex vs gender

French Undercover Policewoman


Sex vs gender

Children’s Military Training in China


Sex vs gender

Afghan Military Parade


Sex vs gender

The Widow’s Battalion


Sex vs gender

Black Widows


Sex vs gender

Rodeo Champion

Helen Bonham, 1917


Sex vs gender

Champion Cowgirls

1920


Sex vs gender

Bonnie McCarroll

Pendleton Roundup, 1915


Sex vs gender

Annie Oakley, 1890s


Sex vs gender

May Lillie, 1908

Sharpshooter


Sex vs gender

Southwestern Cowgirl

1880s

Female Army Scout

1896


Sex vs gender

Women in Politics

We need more women in politics because women are more nurturing and will transform the political arena.

--Katherine Brown, 1992 Democratic Convention

  • Margaret Thatcher

  • Indira Gandhi

  • Golda Meir

  • Madeleine Albright

  • Queen Elizabeth

  • Katherine the Great

  • Gale Norton

  • Christie Whitman

  • Phyllis Schlafly

  • Condolezza Rice

  • Biljana Plavsic


Sex vs gender

Ashoura

Women participate in rituals promoting “manhood”.


Sex vs gender

GENDER-RELATED BEHAVIOR

Concepts

Sex vs. GenderThird Genders

Biological vs. Social MaleBerdacheHijras

Biological vs. Social Femalefa’afafinesGuevodoche

EunuchsCastrati

Pseudo-hermaphroditismInstitutionalized Homosexuality

Patriarchal SocietyMatriarchal Society

UniformitarianismOccam's Razor

Correlation does not prove causality. Typical does not mean "natural." A constant cannot explain a variable.Ethnobiology

Dichotomous vs. Continuous Sexual Paradigm

Aristotelian vs. Galilean

essentialist vs. conditional

Infrastructure  Structure  Superstructure


Sex vs gender

The Cost of Being a Male


Sex vs gender

Men Commit Suicide at a Much Higher Rate than Women


Sex vs gender

Male suicide is significantly higher than female suicide among the elderly as well.

The suicide rate for men over 85 is 1,350% higher than for women of the same age.


Sex vs gender

Men are also far more likely than women to be the victims of violent crime . . .


Sex vs gender

  • Healthy Life Expectancy Rankings

  • World Health Organization Disability Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE)

  • RankCountryTotalMaleFemaleM/F

  • Japan74.5 71.9 77.2 -5.3

  • Australia73.2 70.8 75.5 -4.7

  • France73.1 69.3 76.9 - 7.6

  • Sweden73.0 71.2 74.9 -3.7

  • Spain72.8 69.8 75.7 -5.9

  • Italy72.7 70.0 75.4 -5.4

  • Greece72.5 70.5 74.6 -4.1

  • Switzerland72.5 69.5 75.5 -6.0

  • Monaco72.4 68.5 76.3 -7.8

  • Andorra72.3 69.3 75.2 -5.9

  • * * * * *

  • U.S.A 70.0 67.572.6 -5.1

  • 81China62.3 61.2 63.3 -2.1

  • 134India53.2 52.8 53.5 -0.7


Sex vs gender

Titanic Death Toll


Sex vs gender

Death on the Titanic

Significantly, of the 1,513 passengers who lost their lives, 1,352 were men, but only 161 were women and children.

While 80% of the menperished, only 26% of the women lost their lives.

The survival rate of the women was 3 times that of the men.


Sex vs gender

Breaker Boys in the Coal Mines


Sex vs gender

These men lost their legs due to the Taliban.


Sex vs gender

The Taliban also cut off this boys arms.


Sex vs gender

Only men are expected to be prepared to die for their country.

* * *

Imagine what would happen if an Affirmative Action policy were put in place to draft only women?


Sex vs gender

Bloody Lane at Chancellorsville


Sex vs gender

The Slaughter at Gettysberg


Sex vs gender

Men Waiting to be Sent into Battle

at Petersburg


Sex vs gender

The Cornfield at Antietem


Sex vs gender

Military Casualties in World War I (1914-1918)

Belgium 45,550

British Empire 942,135

France 1,368,000

Greece 23,098

Italy 680,000

Japan 1,344

Montenegro 3,000

Portugal 8,145

Romania 300,000

Russia 1,700,000

Serbia 45,000

United States 116,516

Austria-Hungary 1,200,000

Bulgaria 87,495

Germany 1,935,000

Ottoman Empire 725,000

________________________

TOTAL9,180,283


Sex vs gender

Vietnam War Death Toll

Combat Area Casualties Current File

(CACCF)

[Southeast Asia]

in the Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

CACCF Record Counts by Sex

SexNo. of Records

Female . . . 8

Male . . . . .58,185

_____________ ___________

Total58,193


Sex vs gender

  • Iraq War

  • Over 600 soldiers have died in the Iraq war.

  • How many have been male?

  • How many have been female?


Sex vs gender

Over 17 million men

died in combat

during World War II.


Sex vs gender

Amount Spent on Gender-Specific Cancer Research

by National Cancer Institute (NCI)

No. of Deaths Amount Spent (in millions)

Prostrate Cancer (male) 35,000$ 55.1

$1,574 per death

Breast Cancer (female) 46,000$ 213.7

$4,645 per death

* * * * *

3 times as much money is spent per death on breast cancer research as is spent on prostrate cancer research.


Sex vs gender

Finis


Sex vs gender

GENDER-RELATED BEHAVIOR

Concepts

Sex vs. GenderThird Genders

Biological vs. Social MaleBerdacheHijras

Biological vs. Social Femalefa’afafinesGuevodoche

EunuchsCastrati

Pseudo-hermaphroditismInstitutionalized Homosexuality

Patriarchal SocietyMatriarchal Society

UniformitarianismOccam's Razor

Correlation does not prove causality. Typical does not mean "natural." A constant cannot explain a variable.Ethnobiology

Dichotomous vs. Continuous Sexual Paradigm

Aristotelian vs. Galilean

essentialist vs. conditional

Infrastructure  Structure  Superstructure


Sex vs gender

Somewhere, deep in the Batcave . . .

Batman:Did you know, Robin, that women's earnings relative to men increased from 59 to 60 cents on the dollar between 1960 and 1980; from 60 to 73 cents on the dollar between 1980 and 1990, and from 73 to 76 cents on the dollar between 1990 and 1998. That means that women's earnings increased annually some 26 times during the conservative Reagan and Bush Administrations as it did during the largely liberal democratic administrations of Kennedy, Johnson and Carter, and at more than twice the rate in which it has increased during the present Clinton Administration, despite our President's "special relationship" with women.

Robin:Holy Hilary, Batman!! How can this be? I have been raised as a true and loyal liberal to believe that the Republican Party represents the epitome of greed, cruelty and evil!

Batman:The Lord works in mysterious ways, my young friend.


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