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cosmic The real voyage is not to travel to new landscapes, but to see with new eyes. . . Marcel Proust francis halzen university of wisconsin http://icecube.wisc.edu rays 2007 energy (eV ) / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / n CMB Radio Visible

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The real voyage is not to travel to new landscapes but to see with new eyes marcel proust l.jpg

cosmic

The real voyage is not to travel to new landscapes, but to see with new eyes. . .Marcel Proust

francis halzen

university of wisconsin

http://icecube.wisc.edu

rays 2007


Slide2 l.jpg

energy (eV)

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

n

CMB

Radio

Visible

TeV sources!

flux

cosmic

rays

GeV g-rays



Multi messenger astronomy l.jpg
multi-messenger astronomy

protons, g-rays, neutrinos, gravitational waves as

probes of the high-energy Universe

protons: directions scrambled by magnetic fields

g-rays: straight-line propagation but

  • reprocessed in the sources, extragalactic

  • backgrounds absorbEg> TeV

neutrinos: straight-line propagation,

  • unabsorbed, but difficult to detect


Slide5 l.jpg

protons ?

TeV gammas ?

neutrinos ?

Crab supernova remnant


Slide6 l.jpg

New Window on the Universe Expect Surprises



Progress through instrumentation l.jpg
progress through instrumentation

  • Auger

  • HESS, Magic, Veritas, Milagro …

  • IceCube and KM3NeT


Slide9 l.jpg

the atmosphere as

a particle detector

Cherenkov

light

shower

electrons

and muons

neutrinos


Slide10 l.jpg

combine two succesful

techniques

  • fluorescence eye with

  • active photodetectors

  • (HiRes)

  • ground array of particle detectors

  • (AGASA)



Progress through instrumentation13 l.jpg
progress through instrumentation

  • Auger

  • HESS, Magic, Veritas, Milagro …

  • IceCube and KM3NeT


Slide14 l.jpg

high-energy gamma-rays

TeV gamma ray astronomy

  • a cosmic photon

  • initiates an

  • electromagnetic

  • shower high in

  • the atmosphere

  • the shower

  • particles emit

  • Cherenkov

  • radiation

  • this radiation is

  • captured by

  • mirrors read out

  • by a cluster of

  • photomultipliers

effective area:

104m2

 8 km

Cherenkov light

120 m


Progress through instrumentation15 l.jpg
progress through instrumentation

  • Auger

  • HESS, Magic, Veritas, Milagro …

  • IceCube and KM3NeT


Slide16 l.jpg

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth



Slide18 l.jpg

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth


Slide19 l.jpg

muon

nuclearreaction

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth


Slide20 l.jpg

  • infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

    crashes into an atom in the ice

    and produces a nuclear reaction

  • muon travels kilometers in the ice

muon

nuclearreaction

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth


Slide21 l.jpg

  • infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

    crashes into an atom in the ice

    and produces a nuclear reaction

  • muon travels kilometers in the ice

muon

nuclearreaction

detector

  • blue light produced in nuclear reaction

neutrino

  • optical sensors capture (and map) the light


Slide23 l.jpg

photomultiplier

starts its journey

to 2500 m

the IceCube project transforms

a billion tons of ice into a particle physics detector



Slide26 l.jpg

IceCube construction

  • 1 million pounds of cargo

  • C-130 planes: > 50 flights


Icecube site l.jpg
IceCube Site

5 megawatt power plant




Slide30 l.jpg

cosmic rays

  • Nature accelerates particles 10 7 times the energy of LHC!

  • where?

  • how?

~E-2.7

knee

1 part m-2 yr-1

~E-3

ankle

1 part km-2 yr-1

~E-2.7

LHC



Slide32 l.jpg

yes, there

is a GZK

feature



Solar flare shock acceleration l.jpg
solar flare shock acceleration

coronal mass

ejection

10 GeV

particles


Slide35 l.jpg

acceleration to108 TeV?

~102 Joules

~ 0.01 MGUT

  • dense regions with exceptional

  • gravitational force creating relativistic

  • flows of charged particles, e.g.

    • dense cores of exploding stars

    • supermassive black holes

    • merging galaxies



Slide37 l.jpg

Rotationsakse

pulsar

Straling

Magnetfelt

Straling


Slide38 l.jpg

active galaxy

supermassive

supermassive

black hole

black hole

accretion disk

jet


Slide39 l.jpg

Georges Lemaitre

believed that cosmic

rays where primordial

radiation from the

Big Bang


Galactic cosmic rays energy density 10 12 erg cm 3 l.jpg
galactic cosmic raysenergy density ~ 10-12 erg/cm3


Young supernova remnants l.jpg
young supernova remnants

  • when a star collapses one solar mass of

    energy is released, mostly in neutrinos

  • the remaining 1% is dumped into the

    interstellar medium

  • the expanding shock sweeps up particles

    like a snowplough and creates regions of

    high particle densities and magnetic

    fields where 10% of the energy is

    converted into the acceleration of cosmic rays


Slide42 l.jpg

Cas A supernova remnant in X-rays

shock fronts

Fermi acceleration when

particles cross

high B-fields


Large magnetic field l.jpg
large magnetic field


Cosmic rays snrs l.jpg
Cosmic Rays & SNRs

observed energy density of galactic CR:

~ 10-12 erg/cm3

galactic

Supernova Remnants:

1050 ergs every 30 years

~10-12 erg/cm3

SNRs provide the environment and energy

to explain the galactic cosmic rays!


Extragalactic cosmic rays energy density 3 x 10 19 erg cm 3 l.jpg
extragalactic cosmic raysenergy density ~ 3 x 10-19 erg/cm3


Cosmic rays grbs l.jpg

Extragalactic

Cosmic Rays & GRBs

observed energy density of extragalactic CR:

~ 1044 ergs/yr/Mpc3

Gamma-Ray Bursts:

1051 ergs x 300/yr/Gpc3

~ 1044 ergs/yr/Mpc3

GRBs provide environment and energy

to explain the extragalactic cosmic rays!


Cosmic rays snrs47 l.jpg
Cosmic Rays & SNRs

observed energy density of galactic CR:

~ 10-12 erg/cm3

galactic

Supernova Remnants:

1050 ergs every 30 years

~10-12 erg/cm3

SNRs provide the environment and energy

to explain the galactic cosmic rays!


Energy in extra galactic cosmic rays 3x10 19 erg cm 3 or 10 44 erg yr per mpc 3 for 10 10 years l.jpg
energy in extra-galactic cosmic rays :~ 3x10-19 erg/cm3or ~ 1044 erg/yr per (Mpc)3 for 1010 years

3x1044 erg/s per active galaxy !!!

2x1051 erg per gamma ray burst

 energy in cosmic rays ~ equal to

the energy in light !

1 TeV = 1.6 erg


Slide49 l.jpg

Neutrino Beams: Heaven & Earth

NEUTRINO BEAMS: HEAVEN & EARTH

Black Hole

Radiation

Enveloping

Black Hole

p + g -> n + p+

~ cosmic ray + neutrino

->p + p0

~ cosmic ray + gamma


Energy in extra galactic cosmic rays 3x10 19 erg cm 3 or 10 44 erg yr per mpc 3 for 10 10 years50 l.jpg
energy in extra-galactic cosmic rays :~ 3x10-19 erg/cm3or ~ 1044 erg/yr per (Mpc)3 for 1010 years

3x1044 erg/s per active galaxy

2x1052 erg per gamma ray burst

 energy in

cosmic rays ~ photons ~ neutrinos


Slide51 l.jpg

Full IceCube, 1 year

diffuse muon neutrino flux

MPR

bound

100 - 500 events

per km2year

WB

HBL blazars


Galactic cosmic rays are revealed by their interaction with the ism l.jpg
galactic cosmic rays are revealedby their interaction with the ISM


Slide53 l.jpg

supernova

beam

dump

RX J1713-3946


Hess rx j1713 spectrum l.jpg
HESS: RX J1713 Spectrum

18 h 2003 data

  • first resolved

  • image of

  • supernova

  • remnant

  • in TeV photons

  • (theoretical)

  • evidence for

  • the acceleration

  • of protons at

  • the level

  • required to

  • explain

  • galactic cosmic

  • rays


Slide55 l.jpg

the accelerator

TeV photons trace the density of the molecular clouds


Galactic plane l.jpg
galactic plane

90°

65°

30°

210°

Southern

Hemisphere

Sky

Standard Deviations


Slide57 l.jpg

beam dump converts

protons in n and g

p

g

e

m

p-

p0

p+

g

g

n m+

n m-

e+ e-

e+

g

e-

m+

e+

g

n

e+

ne


Slide58 l.jpg

cygnus region : Milagro and Tibet

Milagro

contours are pion model with no sources

crosses are EGRET unidentified sources

TeV/matter correlation

chance noncorrelation

1.5x10-6

3 ± 1 neutrinos in IceCube per source



Slide60 l.jpg

m

n

  • lattice of photomultipliers


Antares layout l.jpg

from DUMAND to ANTARES ( via lake Baikal )

ANTARES Layout

  • 12 lines

  • 25 storeys / line

  • 3 PMT / storey

14.5 m

350 m

Junction

box

100 m

40 km to

shore

~60-75 m

Readout cables



Antares63 l.jpg

antares

antares


Slide64 l.jpg

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

Where are we ?

runway

South Pole

AMANDA-II


Slide65 l.jpg

AMANDAEvent

Signatures:Muons

muon neutrino

interaction  track

nm + N  m +X


Slide66 l.jpg

IceCube

event

22 strings


Slide67 l.jpg

AMANDAII2000

1555 Events


Slide68 l.jpg

AMANDA skyplot 2000-2003

3369 events

below horizon


Search for clusters of events in the northern sky l.jpg
search for clusters of events in the Northern sky

SensitivityFn/Fg~2

for 200 days of “high-state” and spectral results from HEGRA

Crab Nebula: MC probability to obtain an entry with at least this excess significance is 64%

… out of 33 sources


Slide70 l.jpg

first IceCube sky

  • 2005 data

  • 887 events

  • above 10 degrees

  • 2006 unblinded


Slide71 l.jpg

Flux of

TeV photons

(arb. units)

3

2

1

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

Year

May

June

July

need a larger

detector

Arrival time of the neutrinos from the direction of

ES1959+650 detected by AMANDA

gamma-rays detected by TeV gamma telescopes




Atmospheric neutrinos l.jpg
atmospheric neutrinos

cosmic ray

π+

+

e+



e



≈15 Km


Slide75 l.jpg

atmospheric neutrinos up to 100 TeV

detector measures the atmospheric neutrino

flux predicted: method validated


Icecube deployments l.jpg

78

2006-2007: 13 strings

74

73

72

67

66

65

59

2005-2006: 8 strings

58

57

56

2004-2005 : 1 string

50

49

48

47

46

40

39

38

30

29

21

IceCube deployments

Counting house: commissioned in January 2007

  • Completion 2011 :

  • 80 strings 60 modules each

  • 17m between modules

  • 125m between strings

  • 1 km³ ; ~1GTon

  • 1997optical modules in ice:

  • AMANDA 677

  • IceCube 1320


Slide77 l.jpg

background:

downgoing cosmic

ray muons

600 per second

signal:

upgoing muons

initiated by

neutrinos

1 per hour



Icecube particle physics with one million atmospheric neutrinos l.jpg
IceCube : particle physics withone million atmospheric neutrinos

Bigger and better:

also energy measurement, flavor identification …

Physics:

measurement of the high-energy neutrino cross section

TeV-scale gravity, quantum decoherence

physics beyond 3-flavor oscillations

test special and general relativity with new precision

search for magnetic monopoles

search for neutralino (or other) dark matter

search for non-standard model neutrino interactions


Icecube l.jpg
IceCube

  • in the next 10 years IceCube will observe

    ~ 106 neutrinos with energies 0.1—1,000 TeV

    ~ 10 neutrinos with energy > 106 TeV

    made in the interactions of cosmic rays with

    the Earth’s atmosphere and microwave photons.

  • with m~0.01 eV and E~100 TeV

    the Lorenz factor of the neutrino is

25 m

45 m




Slide83 l.jpg

violation of Lorentz invariance may be a tool to study Planck scale physics

 interaction with Planck mass particles distort spacetime

 Planck scale vacuum fluctuations probed by high energy neutrinos

modification to dispersion relation leads to an energy dependent speed of light.


Lorentz violation d e vs d t l.jpg
Lorentz violation Planck scale physics: DE vs Dt

violation of Lorentz invariance because of Planck scale physics can be detected through time delays of high energy neutrinos relative to low energy photons

from a source at a distance d; for instance a GRB.


2005 2006 2007 deployments l.jpg
2005, 2006, 2007 deployments Planck scale physics

AMANDA

a km squared year

data by 08~09

IceCube string and IceTop station deployed 01/05

IceCube string and IceTop station deployed 12/05 – 01/06

data from completed

Antares detector

 KM3NeT

IceTop station only 2006

IceCube string and IceTop station to be deployed 12/06 – 01/07

more data from Auger, HESS,

  • 604 DOMs deployed to date

  • Want to achieve steady state of 14 strings / season.


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