Ecocriticism & Some Romantic Poems Does Nature Exist beyond Human Languages? Outline Different Usages of Nature Ecocriticism : Starting Questions Ecocriticism: General Introduction ; Methodologies ; Issues ; Examples: the picturesque and “ Tinturn Abbey ”
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Does Nature Exist
beyond Human Languages?
2. To regain a sense of the inextricability of nature and culture, physis and techne, earth and artifact-consumption and destruction.“ Does ecology include Internet & the flows of capital?
3. Critique of Current Critical Schools as 'Cold War criticism' 'Global Warming criticism'
2. Reframing the text – e.g. “The Blind Man” in the context of the natural world;
3. Revaluing Nature Writing –e.g. Alfred Leopold’s Sand Country Almanac;
4. Return to Romanticism’s “neopastoral”;
5. Reconnecting the social and the ecological e.g. Feminization of Nature; exploitation of the aborigines and their lands;
6. Regrounding (and reshaping) language.
2. Improvement of mind and manners by education and training, since early 16th century
Different definitions of culture –
In the 19th century, with the dimunition of the proportion of the population involved in tillage and the rapid growth of industrialization, the old sense died and the new one was further developed;
20th century: applied to the ‘aesthetic sphere.’ ‘refinement of mind, tastes, and manners’ => ‘artistic and intellectual side of human civilization’ culture vs. nature
The aesthete bemuses the locals
Harmoniously arranged cows
Not so harmoniously arranged cows, drawn ‘after nature’
The perils of the picturesque
- what Romanticism really valorizes is not nature/female, but the human/male imagination, human language and male quest;
1. the sensual beauties of autumn in its very moments--early, mid and late autumn with their specific kinds of beauty.
2. Transience vs. prolonging the effects
A. examples of transience + prolongment:
1. From “never cease” to last oozing,bloom the soft-dying day, stubble-plains, gnats
2. Actions gets smaller and smaller, but accumulated to show autumn’s richness
B. effects prolonged by the mellifluous sounds and long vowels.
C. Long sentences throughout the whole poem.
(personification+ action, alliteration;sensual images )
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;
To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
To swell the gourd, and plumpthe hazel shells
With a sweet kernel; to set buddingmore,
And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease,
For Summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.
Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?
Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
Thee sittingcareless on a granary floor,
Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;
Or on a half-reap'd furrow soundasleep,
Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook
Spares the next swath and all its twined flowers:
And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep
Steady thy laden head across a brook;
Or by a cyder-press, with patient look,
Thou watchestthe lastoozingshours by hours.
Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,--
While barred cloudsbloom the soft-dying day,
And touchthe stubble-plains with rosy hue;
Then in a wailful choir the small gnatsmourn
Among the river sallows, borne aloft
Or sinking as the light windlives or dies;
And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn;
Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft
The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;
And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.