Planning for mathematics instruction
Download
1 / 22

Planning for Mathematics Instruction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 333 Views
  • Updated On :

Planning for Mathematics Instruction Main Reference: Teaching Mathematics in Grades K-8 Research-based Methods, 2nd-ed, Edited by Thomas R. Post. Teaching Elementary School Mathematics: Methods and Content for Grades K-8 by Frederick H. Bell Stages in Teaching Planning method evaluation

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Planning for Mathematics Instruction' - oshin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Planning for mathematics instruction l.jpg

Planning for Mathematics Instruction

Main Reference:

Teaching Mathematics in Grades K-8 Research-based Methods, 2nd-ed, Edited by Thomas R. Post.

Teaching Elementary School Mathematics: Methods and Content for Grades K-8 by Frederick H. Bell


Stages in teaching l.jpg
Stages in Teaching

  • Planning

  • method

  • evaluation


Teacher as decision maker l.jpg
Teacher as Decision Maker

  • Content

    • development approach -- instruction proceed from what students know toward knowledge and skills beyond their present understanding.

    • Teachers have a great deal of autonomy within the prescribe curriculum.

  • behavior of the learners: how the students spend their time.

  • behavior of the teachers: motivation, reinforcement, retention, and transfer


Effective mathematics instruction l.jpg
Effective Mathematics Instruction

Good Teachers

  • are clear about their goals, and are able to articulate to students, fellow teachers, parents and administrators.

  • Are knowledgeable about the the content they teach

  • knowledgeable about a wide range of instructional strategies

  • communicate to students what is expected and why; help students search for meaning in mathematics


Effective teaching l.jpg
Effective Teaching

  • High expectations, high academic performance

  • amount of time actively contributed to learning -> achievement

  • explain what expected to learn and demonstrate the steps

  • students tutoring other students

  • achievement rises when questions asked that require apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate


Slide6 l.jpg

Source: What Works: Research about Teaching and Learning. U.S. Department of Education, 1986.


Effective teaching practices l.jpg
Effective Teaching Practices regularly and were conscientiously done.

  • Instruction is guided by a preplanned curriculum

  • high expectations for student learning

  • students are carefully oriented to lessons: objectives explained; linked to previously studied; key concepts/skills reminded

  • Instruction is clear and focused

  • Learning progress is monitored

  • Reteach what not understood

  • Classtime is used for learning


Slide8 l.jpg

  • Smooth and efficient classroom routines regularly and were conscientiously done.

  • Instructional groups (whole/small) formed to fit instructional needs.

  • Standards for classroom behavior are explicit;

  • Personal interactions between teachers and students;

  • Incentives and rewards for students

Source: Onward to Excellence: Making Schools More Effective, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 1984


Three goal structures l.jpg
Three Goal Structures regularly and were conscientiously done.

  • Competitive

  • Individualistic

  • Cooperative


Slide10 l.jpg

Example regularly and were conscientiously done.

Competitively: 3 to 4 in groups, students in each group compete to see who can count the most triangles

Individualistically: students count as many as they can, those who counts 90% succeed.

Cooperatively: Students in groups asked to find as many as they can; encourage helping each other.


How to plan a lesson l.jpg
How to Plan a Lesson regularly and were conscientiously done.

  • Set the stage - motivation

  • Tell the objective(s): what can they do after the lesson

  • Give direction: work together? Seatwork?

  • Provide learning context: connections between lessons

  • Illustrate the key concept or skill

  • Help them to carry out the assignment: move around, …

  • Promote reflective thinking

  • Clarify any extended expectations: what do they at home?


Considerations in planning mathematics lessons bell 1980 l.jpg
Considerations in Planning Mathematics Lessons regularly and were conscientiously done.(Bell, 1980)

  • Mathematics Content: select and name the topic; identify the facts, skills, concepts, or principles; be sure each topic is properly sequenced.

  • Learning Objectives: Identify and choose appropriate cognitive objectives; Select desirable affective objectives; Share the objectives; illustrate the application of each mathematical concept

  • Learning Readiness: Identify prerequisite and assess students’ mastery


Slide13 l.jpg

  • Teaching/Learning Resources and Activities: regularly and were conscientiously done.Locate, obtain, and evaluate required materials, then select

  • Teaching/Learning Strategies: Select and use appropriate strategies; create learning environment; assessing student learning; evaluate and improve teaching effectiveness.


Learning objectives l.jpg
Learning Objectives regularly and were conscientiously done.

  • Motor-skill learning: coordinating one’s sense and skeletal muscles to learn to talk, walk,...

  • cognitive learning: accumulation of intellectual knowledge

  • affective learning: developing attitudes, values, likes and dislikes, preferences, and commitments.


Cognitive learning objectives bloom s taxonomy l.jpg
Cognitive Learning Objectives regularly and were conscientiously done.Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • Knowledge: remembering and recalling information in nearly the fame form that it was presented.

  • Comprehension: students can make some meaningful use of it; correct using it when told to do so.

  • Application: ability to use it in an appropriate situation without being told to do so.


Slide16 l.jpg

  • Analysis: ability to subdivide information into its components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

  • Synthesis: ability to combine elements to form an unique system or structure: e.g., finding patterns, discovering principles, ..

  • Evaluation: making judgments about the usefulness and value of ideas, procedures, creations, inventions and methods.


Preparing cognitive objectives l.jpg

Cognitive Objectives components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

Children will give the definition of even numbers

Children will identify the numerators and denominators of proper fractions

Evaluation Item

What are even numbers

In the fraction 2/3, which number is the numerator

Preparing Cognitive Objectives

Knowledge of Arithmetic

Source: Bell, 1980


Comprehension of arithmetic l.jpg

Cognitive Objective components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

Children will identify even and odd numbers

Children compute the sum of two proper fractions.

Children will draw triangular shapes

Evaluation Item

Which of these numbers are even numbers: 8, 11, 19, 3, 16, 27, 22, 10?

Find the sum: 1/2+1/4

Draw a little triangle and a big triangle

Comprehension of Arithmetic


Analysis in arithmetic l.jpg

Cognitive Objective components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

Children will explain why the sum of two odd numbers is an even number

Children will describe the relationship between addition and multiplication of natural numbers.

Evaluation Item

Why is the sum of two odd numbers always an even number?

Give three different examples showing that multiplication of two numbers is the same as repeated additions.

Analysis in Arithmetic


Synthesis in arithmetic l.jpg

Cognitive Objective components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

Students will construct addition and multiplication tables for clock arithmetic

Students will develop procedures for adding and multiplying numbers in base two

Evaluation Item

Prepare addition and multiplication tales for clock arithmetic

Develop sets of rules for adding and for multiplying numbers that are written in base two

Synthesis in Arithmetic


Evaluation in mathematics l.jpg

Cognitive Objective components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

Students will determine the advantages and the disadvantages of handheld calculators as an aid in compuation

Students will explain the value of zero as a number in our system of mathematics

Student Activity

What are some of the reasons why calculators should be used to do computations? Limitations? Disadvantages?

Suppose we did not have a zero in our number system. What limitations would this place upon our ability to use mathematics?

Evaluation in Mathematics


A sample lesson plan l.jpg
A Sample Lesson Plan components so the relative hierarchy of ideas is identified and the relationships among the ideas are apparent

Pp. 133-134 Bell, 1980


ad