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Physical Fitness Physical Activity & Health “Scientists and doctors have known for years that substantial benefits can be gained from regular physical activity…We have today strong evidence to indicate that regular physical activity will provide clear and substantial health gains.”

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Physical Fitness

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Physical Fitness


Physical Activity & Health

“Scientists and doctors have known for years that substantial benefits can be gained from regular physical activity…We have today strong evidence to indicate that regular physical activity will provide clear and substantial health gains.”

Audrey Manley, Surgeon General USA, 1996


Defining Fitness

  • Health Fitness

    • prevention and remediation of disease

    • includes physical and mental

  • Motor-Performance

    • focused on sport performance

    • requires physical skill and strength


Health Fitness

  • Importance of aerobic exercise

    • Kenneth Cooper

  • Focus on strength and flexibility

  • Benefits of resistance training

  • Flexibility

    • Static

    • Dynamic


Motor-Performance Fitness

  • Purpose is to perform sport skill

  • Minimal impact to health fitness

  • Importance of functional specificity

    • strength in relation to the task


Cosmetic Fitness

  • Goal of looking good

  • Attractive physical appearance

    • fitness look is “in”

  • Increases active lifestyles

  • Acceptance of various body shapes


The Dose-Response Debate

  • Intensity

    • focuses on target heart rate

  • Duration

    • amount of time sustaining target heart rate

  • Frequency

    • focus on recovery and rebuilding


Current Exercise Prescription

  • Adults

    • accumulation of 30 minutes of daily activity

    • moderate intensity

  • Children

    • double adult suggestions

    • typically in short bouts with resting between


Fitness Levels Among Children and Youths

  • Results from NCYFS I (1985)

    • 8,800 subjects

    • body composition (increase in body fat)

    • cardiopulmonary measure (increased times)

  • Results from NCYFS II (1987)

    • 4,853 subjects

    • results similar to NCYFS I


Activity Patterns Among Children and Youths

  • Ten conclusions from research (see p. 191)

  • Activity reduces with age

  • Establish good habits early

  • Decrease in sport after age 11

  • Teen years influence adult behaviors


Fitness Levels Among Adults

  • Difficult to obtain data (Adults aren’t in school)

  • American Sports Data

    • several key findings (p.192)

  • Examine risk factors - inactivity is a major threat

  • Activity level more important than fitness level

  • Fitness boom confined by class (upper and middle class phenomenon)


Fitness and Activity Patterns Among Older Adults

  • Older citizens becoming more active

  • Resistance exercise (weight training for all)

  • Aerobic conditioning

  • Significant psychological benefits

  • Future research field - appropriate exercise for older adults


Fitness and Physical Activity Programs for Children and Youths

  • Schoolwide programs

  • Fitness clubs

  • Fitness-remediation programs

  • Home-based fitness

  • Daily fitness programs

  • Fitness courses


Fitness and Physical Activity Programs for Children and Youths

  • Fitness focus in Physical Education

  • Fitness elective courses

  • Fitness centers

  • High school fitness program

  • State requirement approach

  • Need to be creative!


Comprehensive Schoolwide and Community-Linked Programs

  • CATCH

  • Healthy Lifestyles

  • Districtwide Wellness Initiative

  • Community recreation center

  • Collaboration for Intramural Sports

  • AAHPERD initiatives (e.g. Fitnessgram, JFH, HFH, etc.)


Worksite Fitness and Wellness Programs for Adults

  • Prominent in large companies

  • Purposes

    • reduce health care costs

    • increase employee productivity

    • reduce absenteeism

  • Facilities and programs (onsite gyms or purchase club membership)


Informal Home-Based Fitness

  • Videotape workouts

  • Home-fitness equipment

  • Bicycles (mountain and road)

  • Walking and aerobic dance

  • Free weights


Physical Fitness Instruction

  • No national certification

  • Organizations offer certification

  • Most fitness instructors have no training

  • American College of Sports Medicine

    • three different certification levels

    • two clinical certifications


Fitness Certifications

  • Strength and Conditioning Certification

    • bachelors degree and CPR

    • certification

  • YMCA Fitness Instructor Certifications

  • Bachelor’s Degree in Adult Fitness

  • Physical Therapy

  • Master’s Degree in Fitness


Problems and Issues in Fitness


The Costs of Inadequate Health Fitness

  • High costs both social and economic (pp. 212-213)

  • Poor fitness employees greater health problems than fit employees

  • Increase in medical costs (For children 6-17 costs associated with obesity have tripled in last 20 years to $127 billion/year)

  • Worker’s compensation increases

  • Data suggests not an individual issue


Fitness Behavior: Short and Long Term

  • Increased public awareness (Challenge is to change beliefs into behaviors!)

  • Sufficient intensity, duration, and frequency

  • Commitment to sustained involvement

  • Change in lifestyle

  • Quick fix programs tend to fail

  • Forcing fitness on children tends to fail!


Developing a Fitness-Educated Public

  • Average individual needs fitness education

  • Media myths

    • ideal image of a fit person

    • fitness miracles can occur quickly

    • celebrity status and instant experts

  • Knowledge explosion needs to occur

  • Ideal source: school physical education


Equity Issues in Fitness and Activity

  • Issues of gender, race and socioeconomics

  • Impact of obesity and physical inactivity

  • Urban settings and activity levels

  • Importance of neighborhood programs

  • Increased focus on women’s issues


Fitness Tests or Activity Estimates?

  • Value of moderate activity levels

  • Importance of daily activity measures

  • Mass fitness testing can be counterproductive

  • Suggested testing guidelines (Dev. Approp.?)

    • Test to identify at-risk children

    • Criterion-referenced standards

    • Activity evaluation

    • Self-testing instead of mass testing

    • Test for diagnosis and providing feedback


Fitness and Aging

  • American population is aging

  • Maintain productive living capacity

  • Activities are available

  • Disadvantage is ingrained lifestyles

  • Need better information to seniors

  • Incorporate more programs

  • Provide more publicity


Fitness Issues in Physical Education

  • Physical fitness in schools is complex (See Corbin quote p. 220)

  • Implementation ranges from high to low

  • Focus of physical education programs should be “health related fitness”?

  • Main barrier perceived as lack of time in school - creative solutions needed!


Toward a Physical Activity Infrastructure for the United States

  • Move from remediation to prevention

  • Develop and sustain active lifestyles

  • Change involves social context (i.e. race and gender issues)

  • Public-policy initiatives must occur (PEP Grants?)


Questions?


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