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2. Prevention of Domestic Violence against Immigrant and Refugee Women Training Manual. 3. Developed with financial assistance from the Government of Ontario, Ontario Women Directorate (OWD). 4. . 5. . Clarification:Why Prevention of Domestic Violence Against Women?. 6. . According to the 1999 general Survey on Victimization (GSS), women are:Six times more likely to report being sexually assaulted .

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1. Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI)

2. 2

3. 3 Developed with financial assistance from the Government of Ontario, Ontario Women Directorate (OWD)

4. 4

5. 5 Clarification: Why Prevention of Domestic Violence Against Women?

6. 6 According to the 1999 general Survey on Victimization (GSS), women are: Six times more likely to report being sexually assaulted

7. 7 Five times more likely to require medical attention, as a result of an assault Three times more likely to be physically injured by an assault More than twice as likely to report being beaten

8. 8 Almost twice as likely to report being threatened with, or having a gun or knife used against them Much more likely to fear for their lives, or be afraid for their children as a result of the violence

9. 9 More likely to have sleeping problems, suffer depression or anxiety attacks, or have lowered self-esteem as a result of being abused and More likely to report repeated victimization

10. 10

11. 11 Domestic Violence: Definition

12. 12 Domestic Violence also occurs in same sex unions

13. 13 Characteristics of DV Acts involve: Physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women Unequal power relations between men and women Presence of emotional or physical scars

14. 14 Dispelling the Myths

15. 15 Myth 1: Woman abuse is a new social problem Fact: It is not new. It has been condoned throughout history. E.G., the widely used term “rule of thumb” comes from a 1767 English common law that permitted a husband to “punish his wife with a whip no wider than his thumb”. 

16. 16 Myth 2: Woman abuse occurs more often among certain groups of people. Fact: Woman abuse occurs in all ethnic, racial, economic, religious and age groups. Affluent women use shelters, legal clinics etc. less often.

17. 17 Myth 3: Women remain in abusive relationships because they want to stay. Fact: A woman may: hope the relationship will get better  not want to break up the family  be isolated from friends and family  may fear blame from her family and community will blame her for the abuse or encourage her to stay

18. 18 Myth 3: Women remain in abusive relationships because they want to stay. (cont’d) Feel ashamed and blame herself for the abuse Fear for her own and her children’s safety  Depend upon her partner’s income  Suffer from low self-esteem because of her partner’s abuse  Have nowhere else to go  Have a partner who has threatened to harm her if she leaves

19. 19 Myth 4: Alcohol causes men to assault their partners. Fact: The real cause is: The batterer’s desire for power and control Batterers often use alcohol as an excuse to avoid taking responsibility

20. 20 Myth 5: Men who assault their partners are mentally ill. Fact: Psychological characteristics of batterers are diverse. No single one can be linked to battering. According Research, One in five Canadian men living with a woman admit to using violence against partner. 

21. 21 Myth 6: Women often provoke assaults and deserve what they get. Fact: Violence is a tool used by abusers to control and overpower. Abusers know that their partners are frightened of them and use violence as a method of control.

22. 22 Myth 7: Men are abused by their partners as often as women. Fact: According to research, wife assault constitutes the largest proportion of family violence, almost 76%, as opposed to 1.1% for husband assault. More than 93% of charges in Ontario are against men.

23. 23 Myth 8: Most sexual assault happens between people who do not know each other. Fact: Between 70-85% of women who are sexually assaulted are assaulted by men they know. Six of every ten sexual assaults take place in a private home. Four of every ten take place in a woman’s home.

24. 24 Myth 9: Pregnant women are free from the violent attacks of the men they live with. Fact: Of the one quarter of women in Canada who experienced violence from a marital partner, 21% were assaulted during pregnancy.

25. 25 Reasons why men abuse during pregnancy include: Added financial stress  Fetus becomes center of attention, causing jealousy

26. 26 Myth 10: Children who grow up in violent homes become violent when they are adults. Fact: Children who have seen family violence can become abusers But children are also very open to learning other ways of behaving and understand that being violent does not promote a positive sense of self.

27. 27 For example, in a shelter for battered women, one of four children believed it is acceptable for a man to hit a woman if the house is messy. After group counselling, none of the children believed this. Source: Family of Woodstock Inc. Domestic Violence Services Program. Domestic Violence: Dispelling the Myths.

28. 28 Canadian Statistics on Domestic Violence

29. 29 PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY OF ABUSE 1 in 4 Canadian women suffers some form of abuse by her partner Women are at the greatest risk of increased violence – or murder – at the hands of their partner during the time just before or after they leave an abusive relationship

30. 30 Prevalence (cont’d) Spousal homicide accounts for 15% of all homicides in Canada. Between 1979 and 1998, 1,901 people were killed by a spouse: 1,468 women and 433 men A woman is 9 times more likely to be murdered by an intimate partner than by a stranger Domestic abuse remains an immensely under-reported crime: It is estimated that just 25% of domestic violence incidents are reported

31. 31 Canadian Statistics on Children Approximately 40% of wife assault incidents begin during a woman’s first pregnancy Children are present and witness the abuse in 80% of domestic violence cases

32. 32 Statistics on Children (cont’d) Children and adolescents who see their mother being abused experience emotional and behavioral problems similar to those experienced by children who are physically abused Children who witness woman abuse frequently experience post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Source: Nova Vita Domestic Violence Prevention Services. Statistics.

33. 33 Forms of Domestic Violence

34. 34 Verbal abuse Emotional and psychological abuse Damage to property Abuse of pets Financial abuse Spiritual abuse Physical abuse Sexual abuse

35. 35 Verbal Abuse

36. 36 Swearing Yelling Name calling Put-downs Deception Degrading comments Threatening to take children away

37. 37 Verbal Abuse (cont’d) Brainwashing Calling her “crazy” Blaming Demanding Interrogating Contradicting Using threatening tone of voice, etc.

38. 38 Emotional and Psychological Abuse

39. 39 Ignoring Isolating from friends and family Humiliating Neglecting Criticizing Being intimidating (through looks or body language) Playing mind games

40. 40 Emotional Abuse (cont’d) Disrespecting Embarrassing Harassing Terrorizing Degrading in public Threatening suicide Stalking Using silent treatment, etc.

41. 41 Damage to Property

42. 42 Breaking things in the house that belong to the children and to her Throwing gifts given to her by family and friends Cutting up her favorite dress Throwing her things in the garbage Sabotaging her car, etc.

43. 43 Abuse of Pets

44. 44 Kicking or hitting the dog or cat Threatening to kill the pet Using loud intimidating voice with respect to the pet, etc.

45. 45 Financial or Economic Abuse

46. 46 Preventing her from getting or keeping a job Denying her sufficient housekeeping money Putting all bills in her name Making her account for every penny spent Denying her access to cheque book or account or finances Demanding her paychecks

47. 47 Financial or Economic Abuse (cont’d) Spending money allocated for bills or groceries on himself Forcing her to beg or to commit crimes for money Spending Child Benefit on himself Not permitting her to spend available funds on herself or children

48. 48 Spiritual Abuse

49. 49 Using scripture selectively Not allowing her to attend prayer services or celebrate religious holidays Stipulating that a woman must respect and obey her husband Preventing her from practicing her faith Ridiculing her while she prays, etc

50. 50 Physical Abuse

51. 51 Pushing Punching Slapping Kicking Biting Hair pulling Pinching Grabbing Scratching Restraining Throwing objects Choking Using weapons, homicide, suicide, etc.

52. 52 Sexual Abuse

53. 53 Unwanted touching Sexual name calling Inappropriate looks Forcing a woman to do unwanted sexual acts Pressure to dress in a more “suggestive” way

54. 54 Sexual Abuse (cont’d) Unfaithfulness False accusations Forced sex Withholding sex Hurtful sex Rape Homicide Source: Hidden Hurt Domestic Abuse Information. Types of Abuse. Tubman Family Alliance. Forms of Abuse.

55. 55 Cycle of Domestic Violence Explosion/Abuse Honeymoon                           Tension

56. 56 Three Phases of the Cycle of Violence Phase 1: Tension-Building Phase Abuser gets angry Might pick fights Acts jealous and possessive Criticizes or threatens

57. 57 Phase 1: Tension-Building Phase (cont’d) Drinks or uses drugs or acts moody and unpredictable Partner may feel like they are “walking on eggshells” and try to reason, calm or appease the abuser. The woman makes all attempts to calm him, hoping to stop the violence.

58. 58 Phase 2: Explosion Phase The tension escalates Abuser gets angry and there is an explosion which may result in a physical or verbal incident. Abusers may hit, attack, verbally or sexually assault, threaten or scream at their partners

59. 59 Phase 3: Honeymoon Phase The abuser apologizes Promises not to do it again Gives gifts, and may blame the woman for the violence

60. 60 Phase 3: Honeymoon Phase (cont’d) The woman may experience a calm period, and during this period she is hopeful and forgiving It is important to note that, if there is no intervention or real change the cycle will resume, generally with the tension-building phase Source: Walker, Lenore. Dynamics of Domestic Violence – The Cycle of Violence.

61. 61 Module 2: The Identification of Indicators of Domestic Violence against Women

62. 62 Signs and Indicators of Domestic Violence

63. 63 Observable Signs and Indicators Appearance of extreme nervousness or visible anxiety Difficulty listening and focusing

64. 64 Observable Signs (cont’d) Uncontrollable crying or displaying of anger Physical signs of violence (e.g., black eye, bumps and bruises) Degrading or silencing of woman by partner in front of worker

65. 65 Verbal Signs and Indicators Feeling useless and unworthy Desiring to leave him but having nowhere to go Wanting to kill herself if not for the children Describing partner as very aggressive and mean

66. 66 Physical

67. 67 Broken bones Burns Stab wounds Concussions Perforated ear drums Loss of hair Firearm wounds Chronic stomach/bowel pain or discomfort Chronic joint or muscle pain Palpitations Bruises

68. 68 Physical (cont’d) Cuts or abrasions Bites Sprains Chipped or lost teeth Internal injuries Chronic headache High blood pressure Detached retina Substance abuse problems

69. 69 Sexual

70. 70 Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic genital or pelvic pain Bruising or tearing of the vagina or anus Frequent pregnancies Fear of sexual intimacy

71. 71 Sexual (cont’d) Miscarriages Chronic vaginal or urinary track infections Infertility Female genital mutilation Painful intercourse

72. 72 Psychological

73. 73 Low self-esteem Difficulty in forming or maintaining relationships Anxiety Chronic stress Lack of appropriate boundaries Self degradation Uncontrolled or rapid anger response Memory loss

74. 74 Psychological (cont’d) Loss of concentration or productivity Self-abusive behavior Problems with parenting children Frequent crying Passivity Unusual fear response Increased watchfulness Sleep disturbances Phobias

75. 75 Psychiatric Depression Eating disorders Obsessive-compulsive disorder Suicidal thoughts Post-traumatic stress disorder Dissociation Source: Middlesex-London Health Unit. Modified from: Woman Abuse. Impact of Abuse on Women’s Health.

76. 76

77. 77 Consequences for Abuser

78. 78 Loss of family members Involvement with police and criminal justice system Loss of job and income Potential for escalation of abusive behavior

79. 79 Consequences for Women

80. 80

81. 81 Consequences for Children

82. 82 Some General Consequences Break up of family Feelings of anxiety, worthlessness, shame Difficulty functioning in school Distrust of adult figures

83. 83 Consequences (cont’d) Emotional Problems: Anger Confusion Depression Crying Suicidal behavior Nightmares Anxiety Sadness Fears Phobias Eating and sleeping Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

84. 84 Consequences (cont’d) Behavioral Problems: Withdrawing into or isolating themselves Being aggressive Exhibiting problem behaviors at home or school

85. 85 Consequences (cont’d) Behavioral Problems: (cont’d) Possibly displaying regressive behavior (e.g., baby-talk, reverting to bottle feeding or wanting a soother) Experiencing lower academic achievements

86. 86 Consequences (cont’d) Physical Problems: Headaches or stomach-aches Nausea or vomiting, develop Eating disorders Bed-wetting Insomnia

87. 87 Difficulties Women Have Leaving an Abusive Relationship

88. 88 Reasons why they stay include: Fear of partner’s anger and retaliation Hope that the relationship is salvageable Desire to keep the family together Fear of losing her home or lifestyle

89. 89 Reasons (cont’d) Reluctance to disrupt the children’s lives Concern that the children will blame her Fear of the unknown Lack of financial independence Lack of self Confidence — feeling that she could not make it on her own

90. 90 Reasons (cont’d) Lack of practical resources and support (e.g., nowhere to go, lack of affordable housing, no daycare assistance) Fear of future hardship for herself and children Experience of depression, stress or fatigue

91. 91 Reasons (cont’d) Experience of isolation and lack of support Denial or minimization of the abuse Desire not to be selfish Fear of judgment from others

92. 92 Reasons (cont’d) Possession of religious and cultural beliefs that reject separation or divorce Sense of guilt and shame Sense of helplessness Fear of being killed by abuser or abuser committing suicide Lack of trust and faith in self

93. 93 Module 3: Cultural Issues & Competencies Related to Addressing Domestic Violence against Immigrant & Refugee Women

94. 94 Barriers Specific to Immigrant Women

95. 95 1. Social barriers 2. Language barriers 3. Cultural or religious barriers 4. Legal barriers 5. Fears regarding immigration 6. Other barriers

96. 96 1. Social Barriers Isolation is one of the greatest stresses for immigrant women as they remain at home to care for children and relatives Often an immigrant woman may not be aware of the options and resources available to her Abusers often dominate and control their partner’s communication with the outside world

97. 97 1. Social Barriers (cont’d) Abusers often control household finances and legal documents Abused women often obtain information from their abuser, so many are misinformed and have misconceptions about seeking safety

98. 98 2. Language Barriers Lack of foreign language skills- do not understand their rights do not effectively access services

99. 99 3. Cultural or Religious Barriers Women who speak English and who know their rights and the availability of services may not seek help to maintain family cohesion Many immigrant women are under the misconception that children are the property of their father rather than the responsibility of both parents

100. 100 3. Cultural or Religious Barriers (cont’d) Attitudes of family, friends, and community members prevent some women from seeking assistance Immigrant women often fear separation will bring shame to the family

101. 101 3. Cultural or Religious Barriers (cont’d) Many immigrant women have never been independent, and they fear that they would be unable to live independently

102. 102 Cultural or Religious Barriers (cont’d) Immigrant women often come from a close knit, mixed family where a partner’s relatives are married to their relatives (sister, brother). This complicates matters tremendously

103. 103 3. Cultural or Religious Barriers (cont’d) Strict religious practices or needing to ask permission from a religious leader in separation matters may prevent women from leaving Culturally, the concept of separation may not exist – only marriage or divorce

104. 104 4. Legal Barriers Immigrant women fear accessing the legal system because: It may appear to be unpredictable They know of other women who have had a difficult time going through the legal system

105. 105 4. Legal Barriers (cont’d) They are unfamiliar with the Canadian legal system They know of corruption or injustice in their country’s legal system and fear experiencing injustice in the Canadian legal system

106. 106 4. Legal Barriers (cont’d) Many women come from countries where justice is influenced by government; they are afraid of the police and therefore will not seek their assistance

107. 107 4. Legal Barriers (cont’d) Generally, when an abusive partner realizes that physical violence is illegal in Canada and that it may result in criminal charges, the abuser will employ other abusive methods. Women who experience emotional, verbal and financial abuse, but no physical abuse, may not believe they qualify for help

108. 108 5. Fears Regarding Immigration Abused women may be unaware that their refugee application can be processed separately Immigration/refugee status or lack of status prevents some abused women from seeking help

109. 109 5. Fears (Cont’d) Women who are sponsored by their husband and partners are often dependent on them for financial support

110. 110 5. Fears (cont’d) Some women often fear that seeking help from the police, courts, or hospital, could lead to their deportation or that of the abuser Women may fear losing their children if they disclose the abuse

111. 111 6. Other Barriers Fear of poverty and homelessness Immigrant women often have no family in Canada and therefore lack an invaluable support network

112. 112 Dealing with Difficult Questions 1. Are women making up a story? -No, women are not making up a story about the abuse. 2. Are they lying? -No, women are not lying about the abuse. 3. Are shelters promoting divorce? -Shelters do not promote divorce. Women have options.

113. 113 Difficult Questions (cont’d) 4. Where are men’s rights? Women have everything! -False. Canada promotes equal rights for everyone. 5. Where do men go if they are being abused? -Men can seek support and services from crises lines and community organizations.

114. 114 Difficult Questions (cont’d) 6. What is wrong with hitting my wife? I am not trying to hurt her, just to teach her a lesson because she is out of control and needs discipline. -There is something wrong with hitting. Nonviolent discussion entails dealing with issues of conflict.

115. 115 Difficult Questions (cont’d) 7. Do women leave because they are cheating? -No, women are not cheating.

116. 116 Difficult Questions (cont’d) 8. Don’t children need discipline? Canada is taking away our right to be a parent. - Incorrect. Canada does not take away the parents rights. It does not promote physical discipline of children.

117. 117 Some Key Terms and Definitions

118. 118 Euro-centrism An attitude, belief and position that assumes the moral or evolutionary superiority of Anglo-European values as the standard by which others are measured and evaluated and found to be deficient.  Euro-centrism fuels racism, western colonialism and expansion.

119. 119 Definitions (cont’d) Ethnocentrism An attitude by which members of an ethno-cultural group consider their group and its beliefs and values to be superior to other groups, and to judge other groups negatively. It means automatically and routinely interpreting reality from one’s own perspective as normal or superior, while dismissing other perspectives as inferior or irrelevant.

120. 120 Definitions (cont’d) Stereotypes and Stereotyping Expressions, thoughts, and attitudes rooted in prejudice, ethnocentrism, and euro-centrism. Stereotyping presumes that we can judge an entire community of people on the basis of learned images and beliefs that we hold of them.

121. 121 Stereotypes and Stereotyping (cont’d) Stereotypes are always offensive, including when they appear to be expressing something positive about a group of people.

122. 122 Definitions (cont’d) Cultural Competency Ability of organizations and systems to function and perform effectively in cross-cultural situations It promotes the principles of inclusiveness and employment equity Reflects and values cultural differences

123. 123 Cultural Competency (cont’d) Cultural competency does not necessarily address issues of power and privilege within organizations that are grounded in differing histories of oppression, colonialism and racism. These broader, systemic and structural issues that result in an unequal distribution of power and privilege within organizations, as elsewhere, need to be addressed if the practice of cultural competency is to be effective.

124. 124 Why are Cultural Competencies Important?

125. 125 We are able to: Examine our own personal values and biases. E.G.: what is the basis for our concerns? Are we making assumptions or being judgmental? Is this a result of our ethnocentric or euro-centric bias?

126. 126 We are able to (cont’d): Recognize that we are in a position of power And, depending on our values and level of cultural sensitivity, can make this a positive or negative experience for the woman

127. 127 We can: Become familiar with our comfort level with the topic of domestic violence Become aware of your skill level, responsibilities and boundaries

128. 128 Module 4: Prevention of Domestic Violence — Assessment, Intervention and Referral

129. 129 Assessment

130. 130 Definition of Assessment: Proactive assessment and intervention means assessing and evaluating an individual, not after, but before, the occurrence of an event, with a view to preventing it.

131. 131 Levels of Assessment

132. 132 Level 1: This is the initial assessment by a frontline worker who may or may not be experienced in responding to woman abuse.

133. 133 Levels of Assessment (cont’d) Level 2: This is a more in-depth assessment by a worker who is specialized in woman abuse issues, including immigration issues (e.g., the challenges related to immigration status).

134. 134 Levels of Assessment (cont’d) Level 3: Assessment is also done at various levels as the woman seeks and makes use of a variety of services. For example, assessment will occur when legal or financial aid is sought, or when housing is requested by her or on her behalf.

135. 135 Important Pre-Assessment Matters

136. 136 Ensure that the woman has access to an interpreter, if required Ensure that the environment is safe for disclosures Validate comments of fear of disclosure Validate and affirm the woman’s experiences

137. 137 Pre-Assessment Matters (cont’d) Inform the woman that this information will be shared with another worker who has expertise in domestic violence Ask her permission to note some of the facts to help with memory. Explain to her why you are writing notes and what you will be using them for

138. 138 Guidelines for Conducting an Effective Assessment Allow the woman an opportunity to present the domestic violence problem (i.e., let her tell her story) Recognize that the issue of domestic violence may not arise at the start of the meeting before trust has been built

139. 139 Guidelines (cont’d) Be aware that a woman may not necessarily mention abuse as the issue. She may present a different problem (e.g., housing, finding a job, etc.)

140. 140 Guidelines (cont’d) Understand that a woman may speak about a friend who is being abused, when, in fact, it is she who is the victim Understand that a child may have presented concerns about abuse by his/her father

141. 141 Guidelines Cont’d Remember the occurrence of abuse could be denied at one stage and disclosed later Remember that disclosure is a way for the woman to discuss the issue while keeping it confidential

142. 142 Guidelines (cont’d) Educate the client, if necessary, about domestic violence: some cultures do not identify verbal and emotional abuse as abuse Emphasize and communicate that confidentiality will be maintained

143. 143 How to Assess

144. 144 Assess the immediate safety needs by asking: - Are you in immediate danger? -Where is your partner now? -Where will he or she be when you are done with your medical care? Do you want or need security, or the police to be notified immediately?"

145. 145 Assess the pattern and history of the abuse. -Assess the partner’s physical, sexual, or psychological tactics, "How long has the violence been going on? Has the partner forced or harmed her sexually?

146. 146 Assess the Abuse (Cont’d) Has the partner harmed family, friends, or pets? Does the partner control activities, money, or children?"

147. 147 Assess the connection between domestic violence and the patient’s health issues: Assess the impact of the abuse on the victim’s physical, psychological, and spiritual well being. - Assess degree of the partner’s control over the victim? "How is your partner’s abusive behavior affecting your physical health?

148. 148 Assess the victim’s current access to advocacy and support groups: - Are there culturally appropriate community resources available to the woman? What resources (if any) are available now? "What resources have you used, or tried in the past? What happened? Did you find them helpful or appropriate?"

149. 149 Assess [woman’s] safety: Is there future risk or death or significant injury or harm due to the domestic violence? Ask about the partner’s tactics: escalation in frequency or severity of the violence, homicide or suicide threats, use of alcohol or drugs, as well as about the health consequences of past abuse Source: National Association of Social Workers. Domestic Violence Assessment and Intervention provided by the Family Violence Prevention Fund.

150. 150 Tips for Assessment

151. 151 Tips (Cont’d) Communicate and emphasize confidentiality Read signs Observe hesitation

152. 152 Tips (Cont’d) Listen and validate Conduct a high-risk assessment if the woman is in danger Consider when it is appropriate to ask about impact on children. There are implications for action

153. 153 Tips (Cont’d) Recognize woman’s strengths (e.g., Use narrative questioning to learn about her, “What did you do today? What did you do before you came to Canada? Tell me about your friends,” and develop an inventory of strengths and a history of behavior.)

154. 154 Tips (cont’d) Consider safety of space (e.g., open office) Consider woman’s fear that disclosing could result in children being taken from her Consider the ‘message’ given when a person is led through the reception area in tears to a private room, or to the counsellor known to work with woman abuse

155. 155 Tips (cont’d) Consider the impact of companions (e.g., friends and family members, children, in-laws, husband, parents, who are present) Use questions from existing assessment tools Understand substance abuse

156. 156 Tips (cont’d) Use written forms when questioning about abuse to provide another channel for disclosure, as the woman might feel safer responding to written questions Help the woman to feel comfortable Demonstrate concern about her welfare Determine if there are children involved

157. 157 Tips (cont’d) Remember the importance of body language and consider in which situations touch is appropriate (e.g., in Tamil culture a light touch on the shoulder was identified as appropriate) Listen effectively Allow the person to determine how much she wants to talk about the problem

158. 158 Tips (cont’d) Avoid questions that are presumptive Be compassionate Validate what the woman is saying (e.g., active listening)

159. 159 Tips (cont’d) Use interpreters (a free service exists) Communicate clearly what the next steps are now that the information has been shared

160. 160 Tips (cont’d) Provide support and inquire about the person’s informal supports (e.g., a trusted family member or friend) Remember faith communities may or may not be supportive

161. 161 Tips (cont’d) Discuss what support looks like, whether it is really support Inquire whether support is close or distant Help the person to make decisions so she is central in the decision making

162. 162 Tips (cont’d) Ask the woman what she needs Inform her of her options. Do not assume that a woman would prefer to be referred to someone in her own ethnocultural community

163. 163 Tips (cont’d) Recognize that some women have never been encouraged or allowed to make decisions Do not assume that the woman knows what the options are (e.g., she might not know what a shelter is)

164. 164 Intervention

165. 165 Definition of intervention An act that results in an effect Is intended to alter the course of a process or an event

166. 166 IMPORTANT Interventions should be conducted by workers specialized in domestic violence. Mismanagement of the process may result in greater risk for the woman.

167. 167 Levels of Intervention

168. 168 Level 1: This is the initial intake by a frontline worker who may or may not be experienced in woman abuse issues

169. 169 Level 2: A worker who is qualified to work with an abused woman takes over and starts by doing more in-depth assessment

170. 170 Types of Intervention

171. 171 Types of Intervention (Cont’d)

172. 172 Types of Intervention (Cont’d) Emergency shelter Permanent housing Counseling Support networks

173. 173 Types of Intervention (Cont’d) Legal and financial assistance Family support Support around immigration-related issues

174. 174 Tips for Intervention

175. 175 Tips Cont’d Have a list of the names and telephone numbers of services available Ensure that this is kept updated Have a contact person attached to each service

176. 176 Tips (cont’d) Connect with local woman abuse initiatives (e.g., Woman Abuse Council of Toronto, North York Family Violence Network, workshops, training, etc.) to keep up with pertinent issues

177. 177 Tips for Conducting an Effective Intervention

178. 178 Tips (cont’d) Remain calm Be patient because the woman may find it difficult to make a disclosure of abuse Provide information about domestic violence to the woman (e.g., forms of abuse, effects of the abuse, cycle of violence, etc.)

179. 179 Tips (cont’d) Inform her of your role (i.e., to help her make informed choices and decisions) Listen to the woman and provide validating messages Determine the extent of danger she may be in

180. 180 Tips (cont’d) Determine whether it is safe for her and her children to remain in the home Work on increasing safety for the woman and her children by validating their experiences, providing support, and providing information about resources and options

181. 181 Tips (cont’d) Listen and respond to safety issues (See Appendix 5, Creating a Safety Plan) Discuss safety planning and review it with her Discuss with her how to keep information private and secure from her abuser

182. 182 Tips (cont’d) Take seriously any feelings the woman has of being endangered Explain to women who are at high risk and planning on leaving the relationship that leaving without telling the partner may be the safest option

183. 183 Tips (cont’d) Ensure the woman has a safe place to go and encourage her to obtain advice from a lawyer Reinforce the woman’s right to make decisions regarding her choices and options

184. 184 Tips (cont’d) Make suggestions regarding different ways she can be helped (e.g., housing, shelter, police, legal, welfare, etc.) Inform the woman about any limits in confidentiality for example, child abuse or domestic violence reporting requirements

185. 185 Tips (cont’d) Explain to her that abuse is a crime, that children may be at risk of harm, and that you have a duty to report the abuse Assure her that any actions regarding support and referrals will not be done without her input

186. 186 Tips (cont’d) Remember that the goal is not to get the woman to leave her abuser, or to “fix” the problem, but to provide support and information Provide outside referral, support and monitoring, to ensure that the woman has access to a trained domestic violence counsellor and to relevant services Source: National Association of Social Workers. Domestic Violence Assessment and Intervention provided by the Family Violence Prevention Fund.

187. 187 Tips (cont’d) Explain how abuse is defined by the Canadian legal system, and discuss legal help available Remember the various forms abuse takes (e.g., physical, emotional, sexual) Follow your agency’s intervention guidelines

188. 188 Tips (cont’d) Remember your role is Level 1, that is, to support and refer the client Observe language (e.g., possible language challenges, need to avoid jargon, etc.)

189. 189 Tips (cont’d) Focus on client empowerment and avoid building dependency Don’t make assumptions about how much or little a women knows about services Always ask if she would like a referral

190. 190 Tips (cont’d) Provide relevant support, service or emergency phone numbers Help women make their own choices and decisions Facilitate women making decisions (some women have not made many decisions

191. 191 Tips (cont’d) Ensure safety Remember the woman is the expert on her own life Know how and where to refer

192. 192 Tips (cont’d) Explain free services (e.g., legal aid) Adhere to reporting requirements (i.e., duty to report) Make inquiries on behalf of client without using identity

193. 193 Tips (cont’d) Describe available services and the different mandates of their agencies Inform the woman of what will happen at other agencies, and provide relevant service information and contacts

194. 194 Tips (cont’d) Consider a woman’s safety and accompany her if necessary Consider interpretation needs Ensure all actions taken have the woman’s prior permission Provide safety tips and plans

195. 195 Tips (cont’d) Mobilize external supports and options (e.g., family and community based intervention, support for the couple, support for relatives, etc.) Discuss positive relations and the importance of moving from woman abuse to healthy relationships

196. 196 Referrals

197. 197 Definition Referral comprises the act of sending a woman to another destination for appropriate service.

198. 198 Tips for Referrals

199. 199 Tips for Referral (cont’d) Know your organization’s relevant referral protocols and guidelines Know the resources in your community, such as shelters specifically for domestic violence, police (any special units working with victims of domestic violence), legal aid, etc.

200. 200 Tips for Referral (cont’d) Develop resources for your region and organization Make referrals to local resources

201. 201 Tips for Referral (cont’d) Refer the woman, when possible, to organizations that: reflect her cultural background or address her special needs, (e.g. organizations with multiple language capacity) Source: National Association of Social Workers. Domestic Violence Assessment and Intervention provided by the Family Violence Prevention Fund.

202. 202 Module 5: Strategies to Improve Services – Case Management, Best Practices, Interagency Coordination and Local Services

203. 203 Case Management

204. 204 Definition: - Case Management: A method of providing services whereby a worker: assesses the needs of the client arranges, coordinates, monitors, evaluates, and advocates for a variety of services to meet the client’s complex needs.

205. 205 The Goal of Case Management Providing a service delivery approach, based on the assumption that clients have complex and multiple needs Enhancing problem-solving and coping capacities of clients

206. 206 Goal of Case Management (Cont’d) Creating and promoting the effective and humane operation of systems that provide resources and services to people Linking people with systems that offer resources, services, options and opportunities

207. 207 Goal of Case Management (Cont’d) Improving the scope and capacity of the delivery system Contributing to the development and improvement of education and social policy Source: National Association of Social Workers. Case Management: NASW Standards for Social Work case management

208. 208 Interagency Case Management in Domestic Violence

209. 209 Interagency Case Management in Domestic Violence Allows for the creation of an individualized approach to meet specific needs of women who have been abused, based on a comprehensive assessment Is developed in collaboration with the woman and should reflect her decisions

210. 210 Interagency Case Management in Domestic Violence (cont’d) Empowers the woman through effective service delivery Creates a seamless coordinated approach to violence prevention

211. 211 Organizational Approach to Domestic Violence

212. 212 Organizational Approach (Cont’d) Clear Mandate In the case of an organization that has a domestic abuse program, the organizational approach comprises: - streamlining the types of services available for abused immigrant and refugee women (e.g., assessment, counselling referrals, training, anti-violence education)

213. 213 Organizational Approach Cont’d Clear Mandate (cont’d) For organizations Without a domestic violence program, there should be: clarity about the level of basic assessment to be done Clarity on the steps to be followed internally thereafter

214. 214 Organizational Approach (Cont’d) Clear Mandate (cont’d) The process should: -identify the contact person(s) in the organization to which the woman is being referred oblige the staff who make the referral to call ahead to ensure that the woman will not be given the merry go round. Ensure clarity on which organization is to manage the case

215. 215 Organizational Approach (Cont’d) Clear Mandate (cont’d) Whether organization has the mandate through having a domestic violence program or not, having various languages is important to mitigate accessibility issues

216. 216 Organizational Approach (Cont’d) Developed Framework Apart from stipulation of process, the organizational approach requires organization that deal with the victims of domestic violence to have:

217. 217 Organizational Approach (Cont’d) Developed Framework (cont’d) A commitment to cultural, linguistic and religious diversity A dedication to anti-racism/anti-oppression approach A recognition of the role that racism, ethnicity and linguistic barriers pose for women who experience domestic violence

218. 218 Organizational Approach (Cont’d) Best Practices An organizational approach to domestic violence ensures that agencies that have domestic violence programs, as well as those that do not, - endeavour to implement the features that exist in current good practice. e.g., management must ensure that:

219. 219 Organizational Approach to Domestic Violence Cont’d Best Practices (cont’d) Agency staff are trained in domestic violence Clear procedures and policies exist to support the work of staff and provide information on responsibilities associated with servicing abused women

220. 220 Organizational Approach to Domestic Violence Cont’d Best Practices (cont’d) Detailed protocols and policies are in place, delineating how to intervene, refer and work with professionals and institutions, such as the police, courts, lawyers, Children’s Aid Society and social workers

221. 221 Organizational Approach Cont’d Best Practices (cont’d) Relevant policies and services are implemented, based on the needs of women Protocols are transparent and allow for accountability Evaluation processes are used to obtain feedback from service users

222. 222 Case Management - Interagency Coordination

223. 223 Case Management — Interagency Coordination Many organizations that provide services to immigrants and refugees have abuse programs. Some organizations do not have specialized programs.

224. 224 Case Management — Interagency Coordination (cont’d) Often, there is insufficient contact and networking between settlement organizations and more mainstream organizations offering women abuse programs.

225. 225 Case Management — Interagency Coordination (cont’d) Many times, there is a general lack of information and coordination among service providers around strategies for violence prevention and intervention.

226. 226 Case Management — Interagency Coordination (cont’d) There is a need for collaboration and coalition building because it: Facilitates the harmonization of services and practices, making it possible to identify gaps in services to women who have been abused

227. 227 Case Management — Interagency Coordination (cont’d) Allows for the coordination of information, increasing the awareness of existing services provided by other agencies Facilitates a coordinated response for advocacy, helping to define who is responsible for providing particular services and when, which ensures an effective monitoring and support process

228. 228 Case Management — Interagency Coordination (cont’d) Allows for the development of education and training for the prevention of domestic violence Creates opportunities that reveal the impact of domestic violence on immigrant and refugee women, and the need for increased resources from government and other funding sources

229. 229 Whether an agency has an abuse program or not, there is need for clear protocols and guidelines to ensure that all the staff know what to do when a woman who might be a victim comes in their organizations

230. 230 Example of Interagency Collaboration for the Prevention of Domestic Violence


232. 232 Abbreviation Key CCC ? Community Crisis Centre DVU — Domestic Violence Unit (HOSP) DVU — Domestic Violence Unit (PD) HOSP — Hospital PD — Police Department SS — Social Services VS — Victim Services


234. 234 Services Identified By Participants From Windsor Essex Children’s Aid Society The Shelter for Abused Women Hiatus House

235. 235 Services Identified By Participants From Victim Services, Wellington, Guelph Guelph Wellington Women in Crisis Mariann's Place, Transition Program, Sexual  Assault Centre, 24 Hour crisis line. P.O. Box 1451 Guelph, ON, N1H 6N9 Guelph Wellington Sexual Assault Care and Traditional Treatment Centre, General Hospital. Delhi St., Guelph, ON, N1E 4J4

236. 236 Wellington, Guelph Cont’d Victim Witness Assistance Program, 36 Lyndham Street South, Guelph, ON Homewood Health Centre, 150 Delhi St., Guelph, ON Family Counselling and Support Services, 409 Coolwich St., Guelph, ON, N1H 3X2

237. 237 Wellington, Guelph Cont’d Community Mental Health Clinic,147 Delhi St., Guelph, ON, N1E 4J3 University of Guelph, University of Guelph Centre, 3rd Floor Guelph, ON, N1G 2U1 Family and Children Services of Guelph & Wellington. 55 Delhi St., P.O. Box 1088, Guelph, ON, N1H 6N3

238. 238 Services Identified By Participants From North York Community House, Toronto Barbara Schlifer Clinic COSTI Elspeth Heyworth

239. 239 SERVICES IDENTIFIED BY PARTICIPANTS FROM REXDALE WOMEN'S CENTRE, ETOBICOKE Micro skills YWCA Emestine Women’s Shelter George Hull Centre Rexdale Community Health

240. 240 Services identified by participants from Rexdale Women’s Centre Cont’d Rexdale Legal Clinic Family Services Association Albion Neighborhood Services

241. 241 Services Identified By Participants From Family Counselling Centre of Niagara, St. Catharines Nova House, Women’s Shelter, Niagara Falls, 905-356-5800 Women’s Place North Niagara, Women’s Shelter, St. Catharines, 905-684-8331 Women’s Place South Niagara, Women’s Shelter, Welland, 905-788-0113

242. 242 From Family Counselling Centre of Niagara, St. Catharines Cont’d Design for a New Tomorrow, Counselling for Women, Niagara Region, 905-684-1223 Niagara Region Sexual Assault Centre, Counselling for Sexual Assault Victims Niagara Region-Welland, 905-734-1141

243. 243 From Family Counselling Centre of Niagara, St. Catharines Cont’d Women’s Resource Centre, Beamsville, 905-563-5910 Women’s Resource Centre, Smithville, 905-957-1838 Women Against Violence (W.A.V.E), Fort Erie, 905-871-1122

244. 244 From Family Counselling Centre of Niagara, St. Catharines Cont’d Niagara Victim Support Services, Niagara Region, 905-682-2626 Bethlehem Place, Supported Housing, St. Catharines, 905-641-1660 Centre de Sante Communautaire, Violence Against Women Program in French

245. 245 Identified By Participants From Catholic Family Services of Hamilton Wentworth, Hamilton, Ontario The Sexual Assault Centre Elizabeth Fry Society All five shelters in Hamilton

246. 246 Services Identified By Participants From My Friends’ House, The Collingwood Crisis Centre, Collingwood My Friends House The Collingwood Crisis Centre shelter, residency, 24 hour crisis line, womens group 444-2511 Catulpa Tamarac, Partner Abuse Program, 446-1120

247. 247 Services Identified By Participants From Guelph-Wellington Women In Crisis, Guelph Guelph-Wellington Women in Crisis Family Counselling and Support Services Guelph-Wellington Care and Treatment Centre for Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Couple and Family Therapy Centre, University of Guelph

248. 248 Services Identified By Participants From Education Wife Assault, Scarborough Scarborough Women Centre South Asian Community Centre

249. 249 What Services are Available in your local area?

250. 250 Thank you!

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