. Coronary heart disease is the most frequent cause of perioperative cardiac mortality and morbidity after noncardiac surgery. Noncardiac Surgery Magnitude of the Problem. 25 million patients undergo noncardiac surgery each year in the United States3 million patients have clinical evidence or multiple risk factors for CAD4 million patients are > 65 years oldNearly 1/3 of surgical patients are at risk for cardiovascular complications.
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